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giri d
Year : 2002
School : Loyola Law School
Book : Unknown
Professor : Unknown
Subject : Adminisration of Criminal Justice
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Administration of Criminal Justice

Administration of Criminal Justice

I. Overview of Criminal Justice Process

  1. Criminal process - a series of procedures through which the substantive criminal law is enforced.

  2. there is no one set process; lots of diversity; no one set of procedures that is truly representative of the process as applied through the country.

A. Elements of diversity

  1. 52 lawmaking jurisdictions

    1. the 50 states

    2. federal government ~ deemed the most important b/c of famous cases and b/c many states use federal system as their model

    3. District of Columbia

  2. importance of local law

    1. Bill of Rights in Federal constitution apply to both the federal and state criminal justice system

    2. Local law fills in the “gap” that is not covered by Federal law

    3. Fed. Constitution establishes only minimal level of rights that must be recognized by the states; states often provide broader protections

    4. Sources of local law

      1. state constitution

      2. state statutes

      3. state general court rules

      4. state rulings based on common law

  3. diversity in local law

    1. uniformity is only found in the majority of jurisdictions around 2-3 alternative methods

    2. federal law has a different institutional setting, different crimes, roles played by federal actors (diff. roles played by fed. Prosecutors, judges, police)—believe it dog

  4. diversity in the applicable law within a single jurisdiction

    1. diff. procedural subsets have arisen amongst the category of offenses; produces different legal standards

      1. investigatory stages: distinctive standards for arrest, availability of alternatives to arrest for minor crimes, unavailability of some procedures in investigating minor crimes.

      2. Charging process: major distinction is defense accused of minor offenses is not entitled to a preliminary hearing or grand jury review

      3. Trial/pretrial: broadest range of distinction. Minor crimes might have smaller jury, little pre-trial discovery, and may relax some rules of evidence.

      4. In general, jurisdictions impose same legal restraints on officials performing the same function in the criminal process. Exception: magistrate judges.

    2. misdemeanor vs. felony~ frequently used as the procedural dividing line

    3. magistrate: courts of the first instance in the administration of criminal justice. In urban areas referred to as municipal court, in rural it's justice of the peace. Jurisdiction covers arrest/search warrant, first appearance, and preliminary hearing, and presiding over misdemeanors.

    4. Courts not “of record”: magistrate courts that lacked the capacity to prepare a complete transcript of their trials. On appeal, higher court would give de novo review. Now, even though can transcribe, these courts are designed to be “courts of convenience to provide speedy and inexpensive means of disposition of minor charges” No jury trial, motion practice is restricted, discovery limited, and relaxed rules of evidence.

  1. diversity in administration

    1. chasm between law in the books and the law in action

    2. law grants discretion with procedure

  2. range of discretion

    1. accused can play a large role b/c with waiver of rights, grants prosecutor much more power

    2. at every level, discretion is given to police, prosecutor, and judges

    3. ameliorative discretion: the power and discretion that a prosecutor has when decided if to prosecute. Some limits exist- pros. can't decide not to prosecute in acceptance of a bribe.

    4. Prosecutorial discretion is greater than police discretion, judges have some discretion with sentencing, but generally narrower.

  3. factors influencing the exercise of discretion

    1. organizational variations- influence of administrative ethos of the organization. Factors that might contribute: range of responsibility of organization, size, standards for selecting personnel, allocation of responsibilities w/in organization.

    2. fragmentation of enforcement agencies: balkanization of state law enforcement agencies. Department of Justice has supervisory power over most agencies and US attorneys. States don't have a counterpart; police and prosecutors are separate powers, no one power over the local prosecutors. Police very fragmented.

    3. variations in administrative interactions- decisions that are based on the predicted perception of how others w/in organization will react or the reaction of those who share in the administration of justice; development of workgroups.

    4. community variations- how the community shapes the decision of local police, prosecutors, or judges. Debate on how much influence community has.

B. Steps in the Process

  1. The Reported Crime

a. brought to the attention of police/unreported crime

  1. Pre-Arrest Investigation

    1. reactive procedures: procedures aimed at solving specific past crimes known to police. Determines:

      1. determine if crime

      2. who did it

      3. collecting evidence of person's guilt

      4. locating defendant.

    1. proactive procedures: procedures that are aimed at anticipated ongoing or future criminal activity.

      1. uses deception

      2. uses intrusive confrontation: stopping suspects for traffic violations in order to ask questions, look in windows, request consensual search; drug traffic and prostitution.

    2. on the scene arrest

    3. prosecutorial investigations: includes non-police investigations conducted through use of subpoenas.

      1. use of subpoena and grand jury

      2. used in bribery and white collar crime

      3. rare

    4. Investigative activities:

      1. interviewing victims

      2. interviewing witnesses

      3. canvassing neighborhood for more witnesses

      4. interviewing suspects

      5. examining crime scene/collection of evidence

      6. checking records

      7. searching for evidence in suspect's place

      8. surveillance of suspect

      9. undercover operatives

  1. Arrest

    1. need probable cause: must appear to arresting officer based on reasonably known or believed facts that accused more than likely committed the crime by 50% chance.

    2. full custody or issuance of citation

    3. arrest warrant: a court order authorizing the arrest by magistrate. Prove probable cause through affidavit or live testimony. Get if Defendant in another jurisdiction, where he can't be found, where defendant's consent is unlikely, or where police rely on DA to proceed.

    4. Arrest can be achieved physically or by operation of law, by order of police. “YOU're under arrest”

  2. Booking

    1. search and remove weapons, contraband evidence

    2. full custody: facility, record name, time of arrival, offense into log. Photographed and fingerprinted.

    3. If minor, release on “stationhouse bail”

  3. Post-Arrest Investigation

    1. search person/car

    2. continue investigative activities

    3. eyewitness identification/line up, questioning

    4. mostly used in felony cases

  4. Decision to Charge

    1. decision to arrest review by police, then prosecution

    2. internal review decision of investigating officer to arrest and charge - may raise/reduce charge or dismiss.

    3. superior review

    4. potential prosecutorial review prior to filing-usually in felony cases. Use police report or interview witnesses. May accept charge, raise/reduce or dismiss.

      1. rejection/declination/no-paper decision - prosecutorial decision not to prosecute.

      2. Based on: insufficient evidence, due process problems, witness difficulties, adequate disposition by other criminal proceedings, use of diversion program.

    5. ongoing prosecutorial review after filing

      1. nolle prosequi motion: motion by prosecutor that indicates desire to relinquish prosecution.

      2. First time prosecution must carefully review

  5. Filing the complaint

    1. file with magistrate

    2. complaint is charging instrument for misdemeanor

    3. complaint replaced later w/ indictment as charging instrument

    4. complaint~ brief document; skeleton

  6. Magistrate review of the Arrest

    1. Gerstein review: if no warrant and suspect remains in custody, magistrate must determine that there existed probable cause for detention

    2. w/ warrant, Gerstein review not necessary - probable cause already established.

  7. The First Appearance

    1. accused must appear 23-48 hours, few days if citation issued

    2. insures right person is charged

    3. informs accused of charges and right to preliminary hearing

    4. sets bail

      1. posting cash or bond

      2. promise to appear

      3. unsecured personal bond

      4. release upon imposition of non-financial condition

      5. $ that will be returned if returns

      6. weighs likelihood of flight v. community safety

    5. appoints counsel if indigent

    6. if misdemeanor- ask for plea and if NG, sets trial. If G, imposes sentence.

  8. Preliminary Hearing

    1. screening by neutral body

    2. DA can avoid hearing if have grand jury indictment

    3. If arrested w/o warrant, defendant can ask for this so that prosecutor has to establishes probable cause

    4. adversarial process

    5. relaxed rules: can use hearsay or illegally seized evidence which will both be barred at trial.

    6. prosecution presents key witnesses for defense to cross

    7. if magistrate finds probable cause, and it is an information jurisdiction, bindover to trial. If indictment jurisdiction, if finds probable cause, goes to grand jury review.

    8. If no support, release suspect. If not enough to support felony, can enter for misdemeanor.

    9. Only have a right to prelim hearing if haven't been indicted.

  9. Grand Jury Review

    1. Required in all federal cases for a felony to be instituted

    2. only necessary where felonies require to be instituted by an indictment

    3. review if there is sufficient evidence to justify trial on the charge sought by prosecution

    4. closed screening

    5. defense not allowed

    6. if majority agree with prosecutor, grant indictment

  10. Filing of the Indictment/Information

    1. filed with general court

    2. information supported by preliminary hearing bindover

    3. seated indictment: indictment that proceeds the arrest of the accused.

  11. Arraignment

    1. suspect enters plea

    2. if NG, judge sets trial date

    3. plea bargaining, nolle prosequi, or pre-trial motion can avoid trial

    4. options: guilty, not guilty by insanity (LA), guilty, and nolo contendre (rare and need consent of gov't to plead)—not admitting guilt but will be sentenced, has no ancillary effect - can't be used to impeach at trial.

    5. Plea can always later be changed; plea bargaining is very important. Pros. may offer lesser charge or recommend lighter sentence to judge.

  12. Pre-Trial

    1. illegally seized must be excluded from prosecution's case.

    2. motion date: all pre-trial motions must be filed by this date.

    3. In criminal law, not a lot of pretrial or discovery. Defendant has right to written reports, see physical evidence, investigate how confession was obtained, bill of information.

    4. types of pre-trial motions:

      1. motion to suppress: most common—established by [Weeks v. US] held in federal court evidence. Usually requires evidentiary hearing.

      2. In LA, if lose motion to suppress, can file Crosby plea—D pleads guilty subject to appeal on motion to suppress.

      3. Recusation of judge

      4. Change of venue

      5. Motion to dismiss:

        • Double jeopardy

        • Prescription

        • Lack of jurisdiction

        • attacks on sufficiency of charging instrument- charged w/ something that isn't crime on statutes.

        • failure to prosecution to hand over bill of particulars after ordered.

        • Nullum crimen sine lege

    5. request for disclosure

    6. problems with grand jury indictment process

    7. nominant v. inominant motions: nominant are those common pre-trial motions. Inominant motions are those that ask for relief for something that is uncommon.

  • Trial

    1. 10% actually go to trial

    2. voire dire- selection of jury

      1. challenges for cause- number and reasons are unlimited by law.

      2. Pre-emptory: don't have to have a reason but limited in number.

    3. Swearing in

    4. Opening statement of pros and defense

    5. State case-in-chief; must prove beyond reasonable doubt jurisdiction, each element of offense, and that defendant is offender. Direct, Cross Redirect REcross.

    6. Directed verdict: Defendant will make directed verdict b/c evidence shows that no rational jury could convict defendant without reasonable doubt. [Jackson v. Va] Motion to acquit in federal court.

    7. Defendant's case: Direct, Cross Redirect REcross.

    8. States case in rebuttal

    9. Counsel argument to jury

    10. Instructions by judge to jury

    11. Retirement of jury

    12. verdict

    13. hung jury: most verdict have to be unanimous; case must be retried

    14. at this stage, conviction favored over acquittal

  • Sentencing

    1. function of the court

    2. allocution: after conviction, before sentencing, allowance for defendant or counsel to speak for him

    3. options: fines, release into community, Jail/Prison

    4. probation report - pros/defense counsel can interject

    5. rules of evidence don't apply

  • Appeals

    1. If plead guilty- appealing sentence

    2. If plead not guilty- trial/conviction appeals

    3. In order to overturn conviction, appellate court can overturn only on insufficiency of the evidence. Use same test of [Jackson v. Va]must interpret evidence in light most favorable to the prosecution. Rare test: reason is that defendant was convicted by a jury.

  • Post-Conviction Remedies

    1. Cases can potentially have 10 bites of the apple. Trial, appeal of trial to state appellate court, appeal to state supreme court, writ of certerori on constitutional issue, appeal of habeus corpus to trial, to appellate state, state supreme, district court, federal appellate court, and then USSC.

    2. criminal can appeal on limited grounds

    3. remedies available to state and federal prisoners on constitutional grounds

    4. rare

    5. relief limited to further hearing

    6. writ of certiorari: cases where federal constitutional question involved, may be review from state's highest criminal appellate court to USSC.

    7. no post-acquittal relief for prosecution, would be violation of double jeopardy

    III. Overview of Criminal Justice Course

    1. Debate over the meaning of the DPC of the 14th clause is key to course.

    2. Warren Court “liberal court”- showed more concern w/ individual right over punishment/deterrence model.

    3. [Mapp v. Ohio]: applied exclusionary rule of the federal court first established in Weeks to be established to state court. Exclusionary rule: illegally obtained evidence cannot be used by the prosecution. Blockbuster case b/c 99% of important prosecutions take place on the state level.

    4. Old Evidence, New Trial”- shows the abuses of the adversarial system. Prosecution didn't turn over exculpatory evidence to the defendants. [Brady v. Maryland] due process requires gov't to turn over evidence that might exculpate or mitigate defendant's crime.

    5. Look at the provisions of the Constitution that deal directly and indirectly with the Constitution.

      1. 4 amendments with this course

        1. 4th amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

        2. 5th amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual serice in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against themselves, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; not shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

        3. 6th amendment: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtained witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.

        4. 14th amendment: Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privilege or immunities of citizens of the United states; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

    Section 2: The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

      1. 4th does not apply to private actors.

    1. What is “due process”?

      1. Where do we get meaning of due process? Some historians believes it comes from Magna Carta- promised that no one will be deprived of life, liberty, or property w/o the law of the land. Problem was that Magna was really meant as an equal protection measure for travelers in strange jurisdictions.

      2. due process clause incorporated the basic protections of the Bill of Rights from state action.

      3. Due process has become “fundamental fairness”; what is fundamentally fair changes or evolves with the times. Also it may be a result of our history.

      4. Probably “due process” under 5th and 14th don't mean the same thing. Due process under 5th is thought to incorporate fundamental fairness. Writers of the 14th obviously didn't believe this b/c they expressly provided for equal protection. If they believed 5th included equal protection, they would have been redundant. Shows that meaning of due process is really an evolving concept and that there is no definitive definition of this clause.

    2. In late 1700s, Constitution was addressing fears of the power of the Federal government. Constitution was addressing about prohibited actions of the new federal gov't. Reaction of the abuses of English system.

    3. How much creedance do we put in the original framers intent regarding the meaning of the Constitution; question of originalism.

    4. Or is the meaning of the Constitution and some of its ambiguous phrases an evolving concept. Ex: what is unreasonable under the 4th? What is “freedom of speech”? When does the right of counsel actually begin?

    5. Liberal v. conservative: notions change but does have effect on how justices vote:

        1. Warren- liberal

        2. Goldberg-liberal

        3. Fertus-liberal

        4. Black - varied

        5. Brennan- liberal

        6. Douglas - liberal

        7. Clark - conservative

        8. Marshall - liberal

        9. Renquist - conservative

        10. Berger - conservative

        11. Stewart - swing

    II. Nature & Scope of Due Process Under the 14th Amendment

    1. Ordered Liberty; Fundamental Fairness, Total v. Selective Incorporation

        1. DPC embraces the basic protection of BoR to the states. Before incorporation, often might have greater protection under federal jurisdictions if state didn't grant certain rights.

        2. Theories of Due Process Clause:

      1. total incorporation: theory that all of BoR are incorporated by the 14th. Never adopted by law, although some justices believe it. Criticism: abridges notion of federalism; if that was intent, framers could have expressly provided for that in 14th. May also lead to lowering of federal standard so that state, which might have less money, can reach same standard.

      2. Total incorporation plus: 14th embraces all of BoR and other rights that go beyond that.

      3. Fundamental rights: approach that says that need relationship between DPC and 14th. Any right that is fundamental, that is in the scheme of ordered liberty, will be applied. If it is fair, DPC applies it to the state. Criticism: if this is applied, Congress is granted great power b/c they are authorized to make laws to enforce this under the enabling clause. Fuzzy test.

      4. Selective incorporation: review case by case if the right falls w/in DPC. What has come to be used.

        1. [Twining] Rejected total incorporation theory as 14th applied to the States. Yet, also held that some safeguards of the amendments may be applied to the states; a denial of these rights would be a denial of due process.

        2. [Duncan v. LA] (1968) Held~ right to trial by jury in criminal cases applied to state. No jot for jot w/ number and unanimity. But asked about fundamental fairness. Key was that rights were deemed to be fundamental. 6th amendment right to jury trial applicable to the states via the 14th. Said procedural safeguards were applicable to the states if they were of “the very essence of a scheme of ordered liberty”

        3. [Palko] Held~double jeopardy doesn't have to be applied to the states. Specific holding was overruled by [ Benton v. Md] (1969). But wording that a particular procedural safeguards in Bill of Rights were said to be applicable to the states if they were “implicit in the concept of ordered liberty”

    -- question not is this procedure fundamental to having a fair trial, but is this procedure fundamental viewed in the context of American jurisprudential system.

        1. [Malloy v. Hogan] Incorporated 5th's protection against compelled self-incrimination to the states.

        2. Since the 1960s, the USSC has “selectively incorporated” more and more of the Bill of Rights. “Criminal law revolution” Depending on if conservative or liberal might refer to it as “Federalism © or Constitutionalism (l) of Criminal Procedure”

        3. Incorporated rights:

        1. right to be free from unreasonable search and seizures

        2. rights to have illegally seized evidence barred from criminal cases

        3. right to be free from compelled self-incrimination

        4. right to counsel

        5. right to speedy and public trial

        6. right to confront opposing witnesses

        7. right to compulsory process for obtaining witnesses.

        1. Not incorporated:

          1. 2nd amendment right to bear arms

          2. 5th amendment requirement that prosecutors to be initiated by grand jury indictment

        2. Jot-for-Jot theory: are the amendments to be applied to the same extent when applied to the states, as opposed to federal gov't.; uses the same standards of the federal gov't to states. Harlan disagreed w/ compelled uniformity of jot-for-jot. Doesn't allow for state experimentation; goes against notion of federalism.

        3. No offense can be deemed petty where more than 6 months of incarceration is authorized. Can't dispense with right to jury trial. [Baldwin v. NY] Only have right to trial by jury if facing more than 6 months in prison. Not applied jot for jot.

        4. 6th amendment -requirement of unanimous jury verdicts. [Apodaca v. Oregon] held that unanimous were not required in state actions. 8/9 justices do believe in application of jot-for-jot, but result still left no requirement of 12 person unanimity. Shows that some BoR are applied jot-for-jot, while the 6th amendment is not.

        1. [Williams v. Florida] 6 man jury trial doesn't violate due process even though at common law/federal juries had 12 members. Not applied jot for jot.

        2. [Ballew v. Ga] in state trial for nonpetty criminal case, a jury of 5 persons did deprive a defendant of the right to trial by jury guaranteed by 6th and 14th.

    1. Problems of Bodily Extractions; Another Look at the Due Process and Selective Incorporation Approaches

      1. [Rochin v. California] (1952) Prior to Mapp, so exclusionary rule didn't apply to states. Used shocks the conscious test. Fuzzy test. FRANKFURTER: Stomach pumping case where police bust in on guy who swallowed morphine pills. Held~ police actions were “shocking to the conscious” and violated 14th due process clause. Police actions had “offended a sense of justice”. BLACK: 5th amendment protection against compelled self-incrimination as incorporated to the states. Compelled not only when forced to be a witness, but also when evidence forcibly taken from him.

      2. Courts can't ignore Rochin b/c stare decises, but limit holdings and provide exceptions to chip away at rulings. Rochin then just becomes an argument that defendants can use.

      3. [Irvine v. California] limited Rochin to situation involving coercion, violence, or brutality to the person. Police had made repeated illegal entries into the home.

      4. [Breithaupt v. Alabama] CLARK: affirmed manslaughter conviction which showed accused having alcohol being in blood. Logic: taken under protection of Dr., routine procedure, interest of society outweighed slight intrusion. showed that under Rochin that police had considerable leeway even when body was invaded. Police took blood samples from unconscious person. Blood sample used to convict. WARREN: (dissent): police interests in deterring crime in Rochin were of same importance of deterring DWIs in Breithaupt.

      5. [Schmerber v. California] Upheld blood taking from person over his objection. BRENNAN: taking blood didn't offend sense of justice, 5th protection against compelled self-incrimination only applies to testimonial evidence, protection against self-incrimination and unreasonable search and seizure fulfilled.

      6. [County of Sacramento v. Lewis] Applied shocks the conscious test. SOUTER: Held police didn't violate substantive due process when police convicted of “reckless indifference” by colliding into suspects in car chase. No intent to worsen legal plight; no liability under 14th and 1983.

    2. Federal Courts “Supervisory Powers”

      1. [McNabb v. US] (1943) Power of USSC to undo convictions in state courts is limited to enforcement of “fundamental principles of liberty and justice thru 14th. Held~ where violation of 5th after reasonable time passed, any incriminating statements obtained during prolonged/unlawful detention were inadmissible in federal courts, apart from Constitution.

      2. Beale: Fed. Supervisory power has fostered erroneous view on authority of federal courts and gives view that fed. Courts exercise general supervision over fed. Prosecution and investigators. Fed. Courts lack authority to exclude evidence unless gov't conducts violated constitution.

      3. Court then begins to take dim view of its own supervisory power.

      4. [US v. Russel] (1973) RENQUIST. Held~ rejected defendant had been entrapment defense b/c of degree of gov't involvement. Defense wasn't intended to give federal judiciary a “chancelor's foot veto” over any law enforcement practice it doesn't approve of. [Pendulum has begun to swing back against supervisory powers]

      5. [US v. Payner] (1980) IRS investigation centered on accused who was funneling money in Bahamas bank. Bank official's briefcase was illegally seized and contents copies. Evidence wasn't used against bank but against 3rd party. Although law existed that allowed this, DCT used supervisory powers to exclude evidence to deter illegal searches. Held~ POWELL: Reverse DCt- supervisory pwer doesn't authorize court to exclude evidence that didn't violate defendant's 4th amendment rights. DCT can't ignore prior holdings that it is charged with enforcing. MARSHALL- (dissent) holding changes 4th into the sword; also makes supervisory power superfluous.

      6. [US v. Hastings] Appellate court reversed conviction on harmless error conviction. Pros. kept abusing [Griffin v. Calif] which prohibits pros. from commenting of defendants not testifying. Subject to harmless error rule, but appellate court, to send a message, reversed conviction under 5th amendment. Held~BERGER: purpose of supervisory powers goals not served if errors are harmless; conviction would have obtained anyway. Court of appeals didn't give any weight to victims interest.

      7. [Massiah v. US] an indicted defendant has 6th right to counsel and Miranda safeguards. Held~ strict standard governing waiver of right to counsel.

      8. [US v. Mohabir] DCT invoked supervisory power to hold a valid waiver of 6th amendment right to have counsel present during post-indictment interrogation; must warn of significance of right.

      9. [Patterson v Illinois] overruled Mohabir that warnings are needed to effectuate a waiver.

      10. Supervisory powers faired badly b/c after Hastings when it became subservient harmless error rule, it became irrelevant;

    3. Trends/Countertrends: The New Federalism in Criminal Procedures an New Limitations on State Right Protections

      1. Standing rule:

    (a) states can give more protection that under Federal constitution under state constitutions under parallel language. LA has granted greater protection under 8th amendment “excessive punishment” and broader standing rule - thus under Payner, defendant could have sued under 4th amendment since he was “aggrieved”; also right to counsel for any offense.

    (b) lower courts first came up w/ standing rule- didn't allow D to challenge evidence seized in violation of 3rd's party's constitutional rights. Foundation of rule is the 4th amendment and 5th amendment's self-incriminating clause

    © also based on theory that evidence is excluded to provide a remedy for a wrong done to the D, and that accordingly if the D has not been wronged, he is entitled to no remedy.

    (d) in the late 50s, some state courts abandoned standing rule since it invites cops to violate rights of 3rd parties and to trade the escape of a criminal whose rights are violated for the conviction of others by use of evidence illegally obtained against them.

      1. During 1970s, Warren court revolution came to a halt; protection then came from state activism to protect the accused.

      2. [Michigan v. Long] O'CONNOR: Restriction on state activism on grant of greater protection under a parallel provision. USSC will review conviction if state does not expressly state that decision was based on their interpretation of a state constitution. Must state that decision was based on independent and adequate grounds. Dissent STEVENS: should show judicial restraint. (Mashall and Brennan) USSC decisions shouldn't be dispositive on questions regarding rights protected by state counterpart provisions.

      3. New Federalism did have critics; generates uncertainty and confusion amongst state officials and state activism then becomes soley based on unprincipled decisions/ in response to USSC decisions. Did get setbacks in Fl and CA - amendments that restricted state courts from developing their own substantive law on parallel provisions.

      4. [Florida v. Meyers] Reversed state appellate court b/c had misunderstood w/ respect to constitutionality of warrantless searches. Held~ no clear indication that ruling provided an independent basis for reversal. (Dissent) STEVENS- shouldn't take case that state supreme court didn't take, too many wardens had been successful in overturning constitutional claims.

    1. Retroactivity

      1. Linkletter: uses 3 guidelines to ask if holdings apply retroactively. Linkletter decided not to apply Mapp v. Ohio retroactively. What do we do about cases on appeal when Linkletter are decided? What about someone who was convicted 20 years ago.

        1. purpose to be served by new standards: if primary purpose is deterrence, doesn't work on old cases b/c can't deter old behavior.

        2. the extent reliance by law enforcement on old standards

        3. effect on administration of justice on retroactive application of new standards.: to retry everyone from 20 years ago would be an extreme burden.

    III. Right to Counsel, Transcripts and Other Aids; Poverty, Equality, and the Adversary System

    1. AG Report: “Poverty and Criminal Justice: The Nature of Government's Obligation”

    2. The Right to Appointed Counsel and Related Problems

      1. [Powell v. Alabama] (1932] Ignorant black man accused and convicted of rape, a capital offense. State law required appointment of counsel, but just state bar would defend, meaning nobody. By disregarding state law, trial was conducted in violation of defendant's due process. Held~ in a capital case where defendant is unable to employ counsel and is incapable of making own defense b/c ignorant, it is duty of court to assign counsel whether requested or not.

      2. [Johnson v. Zerbst] (1938) 6th amendment requires appointment of counsel in all federal cases where a defendant is unable to procure the services of an attorney and where the right has not been intentionally and competently waived.

      3. [Betts v. Brady] (1942) ROBERTS: indigent indicted for robbery. Request for counsel denied b/c local practice gave counsel only in rape and murder charges. Right to counsel is not deemed fundamental. Rely on lower ct's opinion that defendant was not at serious disadvantage b/c had normal intelligence, arguing narrow issue, had been in ct before so was not unfamiliar with procedure. Held ~ 14th does not require appointment of counsel for any and every type of offense. BLACK (dissent) court should have focused on a narrower issue, by looking at offense and circumstances, was this defendant denied due process. Black believes was denied due process: was man of little intelligence. Would reverse under supervisory powers, does believe that right to counsel is fundamental based on Powell. Denial of counsel b/c of poverty is shocking to sense of justice.

      4. Flat requirement of counsel in capital cases: [Bute v. Illinois] (1948) Court found that there was a flat requirement of counsel in capital cases. [Hamilton v. Alabama] Held that arraignment so critical a stage in Al. procedure that denial of counsel at that stage in capital case violates due process.

      5. The absolute right to retained counsel. Court made clear that denying defendant the assistance to own lawyer on any issue in trial of any case, constituted a per se violation of fundamental fairness. [Chandler v. Fretag] (1954) Court gave petitioner right to be heard through his own counsel as unqualified. [Ferguson v. GA] state may not deny a criminal defendant the righ tot have his own counsel guide him on direct examination. Reconcile w/ Betts b/c these were retained and not public defenders. Established the automatic right to appointed counsel in capital cases.

      6. [Gideon v. Wainwright] (1963) BLACK - Petitioner was tried for a felony, although requested counsel was denied b/c Fl. Law stipulated that only get counsel when faced w/ capital offense. Wrong of Betts to say that right to counsel was not fundamental. Made abrupt break w/ precedents. Held ~ overrule Betts and reverse conviction. CLARK~ constitution makes no distinction between capital and noncapital offenses. HARLAN ~ agree that Betts should be overruled but it was not an abrupt break from precedent. Powell looked at special circumstances, ie ignorance of person, and decided that denial of counsel was a denial of due process. Betts actually expanded precedent. But this special circumstances rules has been eroding. Court eventually found that serious criminal charge was itself a special circumstance. No point to continue rule that isn't honored.

      7. techniques for overruling: argument (a) old precedent has not withstood the lessons of experience (b) that its rejection is required by later inconsistent precedents. BLACK didn't use these arguments in Gideon. Refusal to even acknowledge validity of Betts holding or vindicating his own dissent?

      8. [Argersinger v. Harmlin] (1972) Douglas: Held~ struck down Fl. Rule requiring that counsel only be appointed for nonpetty offenses punishable by more than six months of jail. W/o waiver, no person may be imprisoned for any offense whatever classified, petty, misdemeanor, or felony, unless he was represented by counsel. POWELL~ problems might arise where there is no prospect of imprisonment. Believed fundamental fairness requires a defendant to have assistance of counsel in petty cases when, but only when, it is necessary to assure a fair trial. Look at 3 factors: 1) complexity of offense charged 2) consider the probable sentence that will follow if conviction is obtained. 3) individual factors of the case. Similar to the special circumstances test that was overruled by Gideon.

      9. [Scott v. Illinois] (1979) RENQUIST: Defendant shoplifted. Faced fines or jail, was not assigned counsel. Convicted and only fined. Affirmed denial to extend Argersinger to a case where one is charged with an offense for which imprisonment upon conviction is authorized but not actually imposed. Held~ 6th and 14th require only that no indigent criminal defendant be sentenced to a term of imprisonment unless the State has afforded him the right to assistance of counsel. Actual imprisonment rule. POWELL concurred- judges will have to forego sentencing to imprisonment b/c no assigned counsel. Joined though b/c need clear rule. BRENNAN (dissent) Argersinger established 2-dimensional test for right of counsel. 1) right attaches to any non-petty offense punishable by more than 6 months in jail 2) right attaches to any offense where actual incarceration is likely regardless of the maximum authorized penalty. This was a nonpetty charge. Prosecutors were used, moral stigma. Although might wreak havoc, states should reexamine their rules, maybe imprisonment isn't right for petty offenses.

      10. [Baldasar v. Illinois] (1980) a defendant may not be given an increased term of imprisonment only b/c he was convicted in a previous case in which he had not had assistance of counsel. Overruled by [Nichols v. US] RENQUIST went w/ Baldasar dissenters: expressed agreement that a logical consequence of Scott is that an uncounseled misdemeanor conviction valid under Scott (b/c no imprisonment was imposed) may be relied upon to enhance the sentence for a subsequent offense, even thought that sentence entails imprisonment.

    3. The “Beginnings of the Right to Counsel” ~ AT what stage does the right to counsel kick in?

      1. at what point does right to assistance of counsel begin or attach?

      2. one has the right to counsel at (1) a critical stage of (2) the prosecution. The requirement that there be a “prosecution” means that the right to counsel attaches only at or after the time that the adversary judicial proceedings have been initiated against the accused.

      3. Right to counsel presumably as early as 1st appearance before judicial officer [Brewer v. Williams]

      4. If “preformal charge” confrontations are coercive, “interrogation” may bring Miranda right to counsel into play. But right to counsel as such, what might be called pure right to counsel, is not brought into play.

      5. [US v. Gouveia] (1984) Renquist - one does not become an “accused” for right to counsel purposes simply b/c detained by gov't authorities who are thinking of filing charges. Upheld 9 month detention of prisoner defendants accused of murderer other inmates. Held in admin detention for 19 months w/o assistance of counsel until indictment.

      6. [Escabo, Miranda] if authorities take into custody to facilitate process of making case against them, then he is sufficiently `accused' to be entitled to protections of the 6th.

      7. [US v. Ash] right to counsel didn't apply to post-indictment photographic identification hearing b/c right to counsel limited to `trial-like' confrontations where lawyer acts as a spokesman for the accused. Here, photographic display after adversary proceedings begun, but identification not considered “critical”.

      8. [Kirby v. Illinois] right to counsel inapplicable to identification procedures held prior to start of adversary judicial proceedings.

      9. No right to counsel if prime suspect or focal point or even when arrested.

      10. Right to counsel if arrested and there is interrogation or the equivalent.

      11. Entitled to help as long as stage in prosecution is a critical one or after after the time that judicial proceedings have been “initiated” whether formal charge, preliminary hearing, indictment, information, or arraignment.

    4. Equality Principle: Griffin-Douglas/ No equal justice when trial depends on amount of $

      1. [Griffin v. Illinois]: Upheld that due process and equal protection clauses of 14th require all indigents defendants be furnished a transcript for appellate review, at least where allegations that manifest errors occurred at the trial are not denied. In criminal trials, state can no more discriminate on account of poverty than they can w/ race or religion. Poverty cannot be used as excuse to deprive Defendant of fair trial.

      2. Application/extension of Griffin

        1. [Burns v. Ohio] state cannot require indigent defendant to pay filing fee before permitting him to appeal.

        2. [Smith v. Bennett] extending ban on filing fees to state post-conviction proceedings.

        3. [Long v. Dist. Ct. of Iowa] indigent must be furnished free transcript of a state habeas corpus hearing for use on appeal from a denial of habeas corpus, although availability of transcript not a sine qua non to access to appellate court.

        4. [Gardner v. California] indigent prisoner entitled to free transcript of lower court habeas proceeding for use in filing application for a new habeas proceeding before a higher state court, even though that application need contain only a brief statement of prior proceedings and need not assign errors or refer to testimony in prior proceedings.

        5. [Roberts v. LaVallee] indigent defendant entitled to free transcript of preliminary hearing for use at trial, even though both defendant and his counsel attended preliminary hearing and no indication of use to which preliminary hearing transcript could be put.

        6. [Williams v. Illinois] defendant unable to pay fine could not be incarcerated beyond maximum term fixed by statute; equal protection requires that statutory ceiling on imprisonment be same all irrespective of their economic status.

        7. [Tate v. Short] indigent defendant convicted of offense punishable by fine only cannot be incarcerated a sufficient time to satisfy fines.

        8. [Britt v. NC] recognition that under ordinary circumstances indigent would be entitled to free transcript of previous trial ending w/ a hung jury b/c such a transcript would be valuable to the defendant as a discovery device and as tools at the second trial itself for impeachment of prosecution witnesses.

        9. [Mayer v. Chicago] indigent appellant cannot be denied record of sufficient completeness to permit proper consideration of his claims because he was convicted of ordinance violations punishable by fine only.

        10. [Bearden v. GA] sentencing court cannot automatically revoke probation b/c defendant cannot pay fine w/o determining that defendant had not made sufficient bona fide efforts to pya or that adequate alternative forms of punishment did not exist.

      3. The impact of the equality principle on those who cannot afford counsel or other forms of assistance.

        1. [Douglas v. California] Petitioners denied assistance of counsel although indigent. App.Ct. made independent investigation, said no good would come of assistance, since law allowed judge to make that determination, if indigent asked for counsel. Only barren record speaks for defendant. Ct. of appeals reversed and remanded.

        2. Didn't overrule Betts based on Griffin at all, although posed challenge to Betts. Since unqualified right to have paid counsel at state trial, capital or not, in contradiction to Griffin which implied that an indigent also had unqualified right to counsel, whether capital trial or not.

    IV. Arrest, Search and Seizure

    1. ToSteps to see if there was a Constitutional Search

      1. Was there state action?

      2. Was there a “search”? If unclear, was there a reasonable expectation of privacy?

      3. Was there Probable Cause to Search?

      4. If not, was there exception to Probable Cause?

        1. search incident to lawful arrest

        2. regulatory search

        3. Terry stop

        4. Inventory stop

      5. Was there a search warrant?

      6. If no warrant, was there an exception to the need for a warrant?

        1. exigent circumstances

        2. lawful arrest

        3. hot pursuit

        4. automobile exception

        5. public place

        6. Terry stop

        7. Regulatory

        8. inventory

    2. The Exclusionary Rule

      1. [Wolf v. Colorado] (1949) Frankfurter: Did incorporate 4th to state, but refused to apply exclusionary rule to states. Answered if Weeks was applicable in state proceedings. Held~ In a prosecution in a state court for a state crime, the 14th does not forbid the admission of evidence obtained by unreasonable search and seizure. Thought Weeks was decision based on judicial implication, not on text. Most of states do not have exclusionary rule. Possible that there are other means of enforcing the 4th - internal discipline, tort suits against police. BLACK (concur): agree that if exclusionary rule is judicial implication and not command of the 4th, then the exclusionary rule of evidence is one that Congress might negate/overrule. MURPHY: (dissent) improbable that prosecution will self-scrutinize. Other remedies to violation of 4th are possible, like tort suit, but what are realistic damages. Punitive damages will be low, might not have any physical damage, and unlikely that municipal will be held liable b/c no consent.

      2. [Weeks v. US] Held that in federal prosecution the 4th barred the use of evidence secured through an illegal search and seizure.

      3. [Mapp v. Ohio] (1961) CLARK: Held: all evidence illegally seized in violation of Constitution evidence by state/fed police can't be used in state proceedings. Police got evidence that person was hiding in home who was connected to bombing that there was likelihood of paraphernalia. Police tried to enter once, didn't get consent. Tried again and broke in and showed phony warrant. Convicted of possessing obscene materials. State said b/c of Wolf, could use illegally seized evidence at trial. But court found that since Wolf, many states now have exclusionary rule.Other remedies have proved unworkable to enforce 4th and purpose of rule is to deter police disregard for the 4th. HARLAN: wouldn't impose exclusionary rule on states; doesn't matter what majority of states do, states should be free to choose if want to adopt rule, fact that a lot of states are adopting it shows that feds don't need to impose. States should be free to experiment w/ options. Weeks decision ok b/c USSC has authority to shape Fed. Procedures, not same authority as w/ states. Now are defining state procedures under contours of 14th, not 4th.

      4. Silver platter doctrine: no war between Constitution and common sense. A fed. Prosecutor may make no use of evidence illegally seized, but a state attorney across the street may. Not really working under the same doctrines. Fed: 4th, State: 14th, 4th.

      5. [US v. Leon] (1984) WHITE: Held: Evidence is admissible, if found later to be illegally seized lb/c it was unconstitutional search, if officer, in good faith, reasonably relies on warrant given by neutral magistrate in seizing evidence. Supression of the evidence obtained pursuant to a warrant should be ordered only on a case by case basis and only in those unusual cases in which exclusion will further the purposes of the exclusionary rule.

          • Limitations to the Leon rule:

            1. can't rely on Leon when warrant is grounded on affidavit knowingly or recklessly false

            2. when warrant is so facially defective no police officer could objectively rely on it in good faith.

            3. officer's reliance on magistrate's probable cause determination must be objectively reasonable;

            4. when judge abandons his judicial role , so that no reasonably well trained officer could rely on warrant. If judge acts like prosecutor, evidence should be surpressed.

            5. Must also act in good faith. - good faith inquiry cofined to objectively ascertainable question whether a reasonably well trained officer would have known that the search was illegal despite the magistrate's authorization.

            6. B/c there was a warrant, D will have burden to prove illegality of warrant.

              1. [Stone v. Powell] emphasized costs of the exclusionary rule, limiting circumstances 14th habeas corpus claim could be raised wouldn't reduce rule's deterrent effect. Held~ that a state prisoner who has been afforded a full and fair opportunity to litigate a 4th amendment claim may not obtain federal habeas relief on the ground that unlawfully obtaine evidence had been introduced at his trial.

              2. [US v. Calendra] we declined to allow grand jury witnesses to refuse to answer questions based on evidence obtained from an unlawful search or seizure since any incremental deterrent effect which might be achieved by extending the rule to grand jury proceedings is uncertain at best.

              3. [US v. Janis] permitted the use in federal civil proceedings of evidence illegally seized by state officials since the likelihood of deterring police misconduct throught such an extension of the exclusionary rule was insufficient to outweigh its substantial social costs.

              4. [Alderman v. US] fouind that the additional benefits of such an extension of the exclusionary rule would not outweigh its costs. Held~ don't exclude introduction of damaging evidence unlawfully obtained from their co-conspiration.

              5. [Rakas v. Illinois] standing to invoke the rule has thus been limited to cases in whih the prosecution seeks to use the fruits of an illegal search or seizure against the victim of police misconduct.

              6. [Walder v. US] Evidence obtained in chief may be used to impeach a defendant's direct testimony.

              7. [US v. Havens] evidence inadmissible in the prosectuion's case in chief or otherwise as substantive evidence of guilt may be used to impeach statements made by a defendant in response to “proper cross-examination” reasonably suggested by the defendant's direct examination.

              8. [Brown v. Illinois] Declined to adopt a per se rule or but for rule that would render inadmissible any evidence that came to light through a chain of causation that began with an illegal arrest.

              9. [US v. Ceccolini] a witness' testimony may be admitted even when his identity was discovered in an unconstitutional search.

              10. [Michigan v. DeFillioppo] Don't require suppression of the fruits of a search incident to an arrest made in good faith reliance on a substantive criminal statute that subsequently is declared unconstitutional.

              11. [Illinois v. Krull] Exclusionary rule does not require suppression of the evidence obtained in searches carried out pursuant to statutes subsequently held unconstitutional even when statues but their own terms, authorize searches under circumstances which do not satisfy the traditional warrant and probable cause requirements of the 14th. “Unless a statute is clearly unconstitutional, police officer cannot be expected to question legislature” There is nothing to indicate that applying the exclusionary rule to evidence seized pursuant to the statute prior to the declaration of its invalidity will act as a deterrent.

              12. Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures is a substantive protection available to all inhabitants of the US whether or not charged with crime. Court was correct in Leon holding that exclusionary rule to be a remedial devide designed to make the substantive right more meaningful, rather than independent procedural right. Whether evidence is unconstitutionally obtained or unconstitutionally used makes a difference. If only constitutional wrong inheres in using the evidence, the court has no business considering concepts of deterrence.

              13. [US v. O'Neal] Leon cannot save a search warrant where is now appears that some of the facts essential to probable cause showing in the affidavit were acquired in prior illegal warrantless search.

              14. Leon has not been extended to warrantless searches.

              15. [Ma v. Sheppard] Police couldn't find right form b/c Sunday. Judge made changes to drug warrant form so that police could do homicide search. But didn't make all necessary changes. Failed to change that part which authorized a search only for controlled substances. Police seized homicide evidence. State court suppressed evidence b/c warrant failed to particularly describe th items to be seized as required by 4th. Held~ Leon applied b./c there was objectively reasonable basis for the officers mistaken belief that warrant authorized the search that they conducted. Court didn't agree w/ Petitioners argument that police knew warrant was deficient b/c officer is not required to disbelieve judge who tells him that warrant authorized him to conduct search he has asked for.

                  1. under this reasoning and [Leon] if this officer had passed warrant on to another officer that read the warrant and saw that authorized search for drugs and then found drugs, argue that everyone here in good faith and that there is no need here to deter bad police conduct. Good faith, objectively reasonable belief.

              1. [US v. Caceres] Failure of an IRS agent to follow IRS electronic surveillance regulations didn't require suppression. “Application of an exclusionary rule to every regulatiory violation could have a serious deterrent impact on the formulation of additional standards to govern prosecutorial and police procedures.

              2. Evidence obtained by gov't agents, used in criminal case after conviction: One case said that illegally seized evidence shouldn't be admissible after conviction for consideration by judge during sentencing. [US v. Verdugo] Search was undertaken to recover contraband and to impose heavier sentence after the basic investigation had been completed, not to obtain evidence to support an indictment and conviction. But [Schapani] didn't have same purpose, thus could admit evidence when search was held outside the course of regular criminal investigation.

              3. [PA Board of Parole v. Scott] parole officers made illegal search of residence and found weapons there, which were later admitted at parole revocation hearing, resulting in Scott being recommitted. State supreme court held that although general rule against exclusionary rule at parole hearings, they carved out exception when parole officers know parolee status. USSC held~ can admit illegally seized evidence at parole revocation hearing. Court refused to extend the operation of the exclusionary rule beyond the criminal trial context b/c rule hinders the flexible administrative nature of state parole system and only provide minimal deterrence.

              4. Evidence obtained by gov't agents,used in quasi-criminal or civil case: Weeks-Mapp exclusionary rule applies to forfeirure proceedings.[SEadan v. PA] [Boyd v. US] was a leading case on searches, and it was a quasi-criminal case. Forfeiture proceedings is quasi-criminal in nature, its purpose is to penalize the commission of an offense against the law. Here, there was a criminal offense against state liquor laws. The forfeiture proceeding for his car, which was worth 1,000, caused a greater loss than the maximum fine in the criminal proceedings.

              5. [US v. Janis] USSC reversed a finding for Janis when after a successful motion to suppress, Janis sued for refund of the money and to quash the assessment because it was based on illegally seized evidence. Police had seized wagering records and cash pursuant to a search warrant, and then notified IRS, which made an assessment against Janis for wagering taxes and levied upon the sized cash in parital satisfaction. Used a cost-benefit approach.

              6. [INS v. Lopez-Mendoza] Exclusionary rule is inapplicable in a civil deportation hearing. Reasons: deportation swill still be possible when evidenc e nto derived directly from the arrest is suffienceint to supoort deportations, INS agents know s that it is highly unlikely that any arrestee will challenge unlawful arrest, the InS has own scheme for deterring 4th violations, application of the exclusionary rule aren't intened to punish past transgressions, but to prevent their continuance or renewal, exclusionary rule will complicate matters at hearings where neither lawyers nor officers are well versed in intricacies of 4th, a lot of information will no longer be available, large amounts suppressed.

              7. Evidence obtained by private persons used in criminal proceedings: Declined to use exclusionary rule to exclude evidence obtained by private persons in criminal cases. [Burdeau v. McDowell] But 4th is applicable to private individuals who are acting as instruments or agents of the governments. Use “totality of the circumstances test” -using factors below, if it is found that private actor was sufficiently influenced and supported by the state, exclusionary rule will apply.

                1. motive of the private actor

                2. any compensation or benefit the private actor receives from the govern't

                3. advice, directions, and level of participation given by the government.

              8. Not a “search” according to the 4th, if private person searches and then summons the police, police activity w/ respect to the same object is a search. [US v. Jacobsen] Fed Ex. Employees had opened an already damaged box and found plastic bags w/ white powder. Put contents back in box and then Federal drug agents then summoned. Held~ Removal of bags by agent enabled agent to learn nothing that had not been previously learned during private search. Infringed no legitimate expectation of privacy and wasn't search. Dissent argued hard to distinguish case from when a private actor does the same thing, but learns about the contents either when the box is sealed, when the box might be previously opened in his presence, and when private actor knows of contents b/c of a conservation w/ the owner. Result is no litigimate expectation of privacy.

              9. Evidence obtained by virtue of conduct of nonpolice government employee used in criminal proceeding: Some government searches covered by 4th are nonetheless inappropriate occasions for use of the exclusionary rule, considering the kind of gov't official who was at fault. Defendant stopped for traffic violation, arrested b/c of warrant on computer. Officer also found pot. Later learned that warrant had been quashed, but clerk of court had messed up and not put it in computer. State supreme court held violation of 4th and excluded evidence. RENQUIST Held~ Not a violation of 4th for clerical errors by clerk of court and allowed the evidence. Exclusion would have no deterrent value for police or behavior of court employees. No showing an inclination of employees to subvert the 4th. No stake in outcome of proceedings. Under Leon, police officer reasonably relied on warrant. [Arizona v. Evans]

              10. [NJ v. T.L.O] search of student by a high school administrator at public school. Court reaffirmed that 4th amendment is applicable to civil as well as criminal authorities. Search found reasonable. But under [Evans] does exclusionary rule apply. Court might find that exclusionary rule inappropriate depending who was at fault.

              11. Evidence obtained by foreign officials, used in domestic criminal proceedings: Even if US officers involved, 4th may be inapplicable. [US v. Verdugo-Urquidez] Declaration of “The People in 4th, 1st, 2nd, 9th, and 10th) refers to a class of persons who are part of a national community or who have otherwise developed sufficient connection with this community to be considered part of it. Defendnat here not such a person, was a Mexican citizen and resident, who had been turned over to US - lawful but involuntary presence isn't substantial enough to indicate substantial connection to country.

                1. might be different if illegal alien b/c in US voluntarily and thus subject to some societal obligations.

              12. The constitutional tort by state officers: Suit is not barred b/c there isn't statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage of state that made a state remedy unavailable. It is no answer that State has a law which if enforced would give relief. Federal remedy is supplementary to state remedy, latter need ought to be first sought and refused before the federal one is invoked. [Monroe v. Poper] Involved action for damages under USC against city of Chicago for ransacking man's apartment. Fact that Illinois constitution outlaws unreasonable searches and seizures is no barrier to the present suit in federal court. Held~ City of Chicago properly dismissed b/c congress didn't undertake to bring municipal corps. Within the ambit of the statute.

              13. [Pierson v. Ray] Held if the jury found that the offices reasonably believed in good faith tha the arrest was constitutional, then a verdict for the officers would follow even though arrest was unconstitutional. Replaced by Harlow.

              14. [Harlow v. Fitzgerald] Objective standard used, not absolute immunity. Rule that governs police officer's action in applying for an arrest warrant; notwithstanding the magistrate's officer in petitioner's position would have kinown that his affidavit failed to establish probable cause and that he should not have applied for the warrant. Means that less weight is given to magistrate's decision in 1983 suit than in suppression hearing where Leon would apply. RULE: whereunder personal liability turns on the “objective legal reasonableness” of the action, assessed in the light of the legal rules that were “clearly established” at the time.

              15. [Monell v. New York City Social Services] Statute didn't impose vicarious liability on governing bodies solely on the basis of existence of an employer-employee relationship w/ a tortfeasor, and held~ that a local gov't may not be sued for an injury inflicted solely by its employees or agents. Instead, when execution of a gov't policy or custom, whether made by lawmakers or acts, inflicts the injury that the government as an entity is responsible under 1983.

              16. [Owen v. City of Independence] Statute didn't confer upon municipalities tort law immunities for governmental functions and discretionary activities and also that a municipality may not assert a defense the good faith of its officers.

              17. Constitional tort by federal officer: 1983 applies only to persons acting under color of state law, thus excluding federal officers acting under the color of their authority. [Bivens v. 6 unknown] Held~ although congress had not provided a tort remedy under the circumstances, a 4th amendment complaint when officers are acting under their authority gives rise to action for damages. Look at Harlow standard which applies. [Anderson v. Creighton] Applied to Harlow to tort cases. [Carlson v. Green] Availability of FTCA remedy against government doesn't bar a Bivens suit agains the offending officer, as the latter is a more effective deterrent.

                1. Effect of the FTCA is to deprive Federal Gov't of the defense of sovereign immunity in cases of assault, battery, false imprisonment, false arrest, abuse of process, or malicious prosecution.

              18. Dismissal of criminal charges: Exclusionary sanction comes into play only when police have obtained evidence as a result of the unconstitutional seizure. No defense to a state or federal prosecution that the defenatn was illegally arrested or forcibly brought into jurisdiction. Trial of such a defendant violates neither 5th nor 14th due process, nor any federal legislation [Frisbee v. Collins] Court declined to retreat from established rule that illegal arrest or detention does not void a subsequent conviction. [Gerstein v. Pugh] Illegally arrested defendant is not himself a suppressible fruit and the illegality of his detention cannot deprive Gov't of the opportunity to prove his guilt through the introduction of evidence wholly untainted by the police misconduct. [US v. Crews] Held that Ker, involving forcible abduction from a foreign country applied to this case, despite that here abduction was from Mexico, w/ whom US had extradiction treaty. [US v. Alvarez-Machain]

              19. Self-help: 21 jurisdictions hold that no justification for forceful resistance to an unlawful arrest by a known officer. Abandonment of the common law resistance right. [Wainwright v. NO]

            1. Protected Areas and Interests

              1. [Katz v. US] (1967) STEWART: Defendant convicted of transmitting wagering information by telephone from phone booth. Gov't allowed to introduce evidence of Petioner's conversations overheard by FBI who had attached listening device to the outside of the booth. Ct. Appeals rejected that there had been violation of 4th b/c court found that there was no physical entrance into the area occupied by the petitioner - therefore, no violation of trespass doctrine. Held ~ (1) Trespass doctrine is eroded. Gov't actitivities violated privacy upon which defendant justifiably relied on while using the booth and thus it constituted a “search” under the 4th. (2) Search and seizure did not comply with constitutional standards.

                1. “4th amendment protects people not places” from unreasonable searches and seizures. Petioner wrongly focuses on the “constitutionally protected area”

                2. Plain view doctrine: What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not subject to 4th amendment protection. But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected. Even if can see through the booth, what he says is protected since he aims to protect what was heard, not seen.

                3. [Silverman v. US] 4th protects not only seizure of tangible items, but extends as well to the recording of oral statement overheard without any technical trespass under local property law.

                4. Under circumstances, clear that magistrate could have constitionally authorized the very limited search. [later leads to allowing electronic eavesdropping under Title III]. Gov't argues that surveillance of booth should be exempted from usual requirement of advance authorization by a magistrate upon a showing of probable cause. Court holds no b/c need objective predetermination by magistrate.

                5. Harlan argues for twofold requirement: (1) person have exhibited an actual (subjective) expectation of privacy and (2) that the expectation be one that society is prepared to recognize as “reasonable” Ex: conversations in open that are overheard aren't protected since expectation of privacy would be unreasonable. This is the law.

                6. Dissent: BLACK ~ Framers didn't know of these devices, but knew of eavesdropping and wasn't there intent to exclude evidence that was overheard. Judges stretch language. Make 4th vehicle for holding all laws violative that offend broad sense of privacy. Constitution doesn't give power to hold everything unconstitutional.which affects privacy.

              2. [US v. Place] 4th also protects the interests in possession of property and liberty of the person. Held that detention of traveler's luggage 90 minutes was an unreasonable seizure in 2 respects: constituted a deprivation of defendant's posessory interest in his luggage” and his “liberty interest in proceeding with his itinerary”

              3. [Soldol v. Cook county] 1983 action against deputy who knowingly participated in unlawful eviction that disconnected plaintiff's trailer from utilities and hauling off property, badly damaged it. Ct. of Appeals affirmed summary judgment b/c ruled 4th afforded no protection when intrusion of possessory interest was unaccompanied by a privacy interest . Held~ Ct. of Appeals reversed. USSC said seizures of property are subject to 4th scrutiny even though no search within the meaning of 4th has taken place.

              4. [California v. Greenwood] (1988) White: Investigator received information that defendant might be drug trafficking. Police asked garbage man to get defendant's garbage and hold it for police. Used trash that had stuff that indicated drug use to obtain a warrant to search home. Found drugs during search. Obtained 2nd warrant from evidence obtained in the trash. Found evidence of drug use and trafficking. Arrested defendant again. Held~ Reverse app. Court - warrantless search and seizure of garbage bag left at curb outside home didn't violate 4th , would only violate if there was subjective expectation of privacy that society viewed as objectively reasonable. [Use Harlan's test from Katz] Courts finds although may have had subjective belief of privacy, not objectively reasonable since common that animals, kids, or snoops can break open bags.

                1. Superior Ct. dismissed charges based on [People v. Krivda] which held that warrantless trash searches violate 4th and CA constitution. Court found that there was no probable cause to search home without evidence from trash. Ct. of Appeal affirmed.

                2. No reasonable expectation of privacy since garbage man might sort through it also or permit police to do so. (Dissent argues that this argument doesn't work b/c city ordinance commands him to leave trash on curb) Also, relinquishment of control doesn't mean lose expectation of privacy, otherwise letters wouldn't be protected under 4th when given to the postman. But courts have held that cannot intrude on letter without a warrant. [Ex parte Jackson]

                3. [Smith v. Md] police didn't violated 4th by causing a pen register (list from telephone company of calls made) to be installed at the telephone company's offices to record the telephone numbers dialed by a criminal suspect. No expectation of privacy since he voluntarily conveys those numbers to telephone company when uses phone.

                4. [CA v. Ciraolo] Police are not required by 4th to obtain a warrant before conducting surveillance of respondent's fenced backyard from a private plane flying at an altitude of 1,000 ft.. Respondent's expectation that his yard was protected from such surveillance was unreasonable since any member of the public flying in this airspace who glanced down could have seen everything that polic observed.

                5. Dissent argues that there is a societal belief that one's trash should be private. Most would be incensed to learn of someone snooping through trash. Condemnation by public, laws against it. Police shouldn't be asked to turn there eyes if trash is actually rummaged through, or if defendant had strewn trash all over curb, or if police found in city dump. But mere possibility that unwelcome meddlers might open an rummage through trash doesn't negate expectation of privacy.

                6. [Chapman v. US} search of a house invaded 4th rights even though landlord had authority to enter house for some purposes.

                7. [Stoner v. California] implicit consent to janitorial personnel to enter motel room does not amount to consent to police search of room.

                8. [O'Connor v. Ortega] a gov't employee has a reasonable expectation of privacy in his office, even though it is the nature of gov't offices that others, such as fellow employees, supervisors, consensual visitors, and the general public, have access to an individual's office.

              5. [US v. Scott] Greenwood applies even when defendant goes to extreme that incriminating evidence in trash not perceived by others. IRS agents put together documents shredded. Made analogy to letter that held secret code that was “blithely discarded” and then deciphered by authorities. Both cannot make valid claim of subjective expectation in keeping contents private.

              6. Open fields and other lands: How far does privacy extend?

                1. Open fields doctrine: police entry and examination of a field is free of any 4th amendment restraints.founded on exact language of 4th. 4th protects persons, houses, papers, and effects - 4th isn't extended to the open fields. [Hester v. US] (1924)

                2. [Oliver v. US] Held that Katz didn't overrule “Open fields doctrine”. Open fields do not provide the setting for those intimate activities that the Amendment is intended to shelter from government interference. No societal interest in protecting them, lands are accessible to the public/police in ways a home would not be. Expectation of privacy in open fields is not an expectation that society recognizes as reasonable. Oliver had planted pot upon secluded land and put fences around it. Added no trespassing signs. Held~ expectation of privacy was not legitimate under 4th. Don't' ask if gov't discovered something that defendant was trying to conceal, but if gov't intrusion infringes upon the personal and societal values protected by 4th. ( Dissent argued decision can't be squared w/ Katz, that there was a physical violation of trespass law, thereby manifesting expectation of privacy.)

                3. Open fields v. Curtilage: cartilage is the land immediately surrounding and associated with the home. Only cartilage warrants 4th protection. 4 factors of cartilage:

                  1. proximity of the area claimed to be cartilage to the home

                  2. whether the area is included within an enclosure surrounding the home

                  3. the nature of the uses to which the area is put

                  4. steps taken by resident to protect the area from observation by people passing by. [US v. Dunn] (which held barn, 60 yards from home, not used for intimate activities, enclosed by fences not meant to prevent persons from observing, was not cartilage and thus not protected by 4th]

                1. [Florida v. Riley] Did surveillance of interior of partially covered greenhouse in residential backyard from a helicopter from 400ft in air constitute a search for which a warrant is required under 4th. Plurality focused on fact that helicopter was flying at allowable altitude. Anyone could have seen what police did if flying. Held~ reject respondant's claim that that greenhouse would not be subject to observation and no violation of 4th.

                2. Other premises: businesses and commercial property protected by 4th. [State v. Bryant]

                3. Private areas in public places: Search if police, positioned in vent above restroom, looks down and observes illegally conduct. Held~ search.

                4. Detention facilities: 4th amendment has no applicability to prison cell. Balance interest of security in penal system vs. interest of privacy. Cell doesn't share attributes of a home. Privacy yields to safety.

                  1. majority seemed to limit holding to a prisoner's papers and effects located in his cell and that person itself is secure from unreasonable search and seizure.

                  2. Current concerns of terrorism might affect. Arrested atty who was spiriting info to terrorist in jail. Clear that can search for weapons w/o PC b/c of lesser degree of privacy in jail. Does that mean can wiretap eavesdrop too on conversation between atty and client-terrorist?

                  3. [Bell v. Wolfish] at best prisoners have a reasonable expectation of privacy of a diminished scope, Held that neither strip searches nor body cavity inspections of pretrial detainees after contact visits with outsiders were unreasonable.

                  4. Might have hierarchy as to level of expectation of privacy. Might be difference w/ those already convicted, someone who has been indicted, and someone just waiting for bail.

                5. Vehicles: Police seized car from a public parking lot and later took a small paint sample off the car and matched the tire tread w/ tracks in a crime scene. Held~ no violation of 4th when took paint or tire tread, no expectation of privacy infringed. Divided on seizing of the car.[Cardwell v. Lewis] Cop stopped car for traffic violation. Defendant exited. Cop opened door and reached in to move paper obscuring the dashboard VIN, found gun. VIN must be displayed, so that didn't constitute search. But car interior protected by 4th, officer's action constituted a “search”, albeit a reasonable one. [NY v. Class]

                6. Enhancing the senses: Not a search for an officer, lawfully present at a place, to detech something by one of natural senses. [US v. Mankani] No search where conversations in adjoining motel room were overheard by naked ear.

            1. no search when enhance sense w/ flash light or binoculars

            2. Use of flashlight into camper through ½ inch wide drack a search, as a minute crack on the surface of such area can hardly be regarded as an implied invitation to any curious passerby to take a look. [Raetig v. State]

            3. Consitution does not require that in all cases a person, in order to protect his privacy, must shut himself from fresh ari, sunlight, and scenary. Use of binoculars to see crap game in 7th story apartment 1/8 mile away. [State v Ward]

            4. canine nose: Held~ a person possesses a privacy interest in the contents of personal luggage that is protected by the 4th. A canine sniff by a narcotics dog does not require opening luggage. Not as intrusive. Information obtained is limited. Didn't constitute a search under 4th. [US v. Place]

            5. Place based on [Jacobsen] where police lawfully came upon white powder in a package originally opened by private parties, an on the spot chemical test of a trace of powder, that would only reveal if cocaine or not, held not a search.

            6. [US v. Coyler] No search where drug dog in public corridor of train alerted to a particular sleeper compartment.

                1. electronic tracking: beeper put into chemical used to make drugs. Police followed beeper to cabin and got search warrant fro the cabin and found drug lab. Owner of cabin convicted of conspiracy to manufacture controlled substances. Held~ beeper didn't constitute search under 4th. {US v. Knotts] (1983)

                  1. [US v. Karo} Addressed if (1) whether installation of beeper in a container of chemicals with the consent of the original owner constituted a search or seizure within meaning of 14th when delivered to someone who isn't aware of the beeper. (2) whether monitoring beeper falss within ambit of 4th when it reveals information that couldn't be revealed through visual surveillance. Held~ installation not a search, mere transfer of the bag holding the beeper infringed no privacy interests b/c didn't give any information that holder didn't want to convey. But held that monitoring was a search b/c it would be unreasonable to search and enter a residence without a warrant to verify container was there. Held~ absent exigent circumstances, use of beeper was governed by general rule that a search of a house should be conducted pursuant to a warrant.

                  2. Not too difficult to fulfill necessities of a warrant - it will suffice if warrant describes the object into which the beeper is placed, the circumstances that led agnets to wish to install the beeper, and length of time for which beeper surveillance is requested.

                2. photographic magnification: [Dow Chemical v. US] Held that aerial photography of a chemical company's industria complex was not 4th amendment search. Comparable to open field doctrine.

                3. Thermal imaging - use of infrared thermal device which detects differences in surface temperatures of targeted objects to detect if pot grown. Appellates Held that such use of device is not search [US v. Cusumano] Passive device used beyond cartilage, doesn't intrude on observed property.Held ~ analogy to Katz.. [Kyllo] 5-4 decision that held thermal imaging is a search.

                4. Gas chromatography - machine that breaks down substances to molecular subcomponents. Used on streets to collect materials on container or individual. Marks the presence of drugs or explosives. Like electronic dog sniffer.

                5. WARRANTS: Gov't need not have a property interest in the property to be seized, as govt has an interest in solving crime and interest and protection of privacy are best accommodated by merely requiring probable cause that evidence sought will aid in particular apprehension or conviction.

            1. Probable Cause

              1. Defined: PC is different for search and for arrest.

                    1. PC for search warrant: that it is more likely than not that the fruits of some crime will be found in the specified place to be searched.

                    2. PC for arrest warrant: that it is more likely than not that a crime has been committed and the person to be arrested is the person that did it.

              2. Does PC have to mean more than 50% likely? What if there are two equally possible suspects. Although not more than 50% with each one, must arrest both.

              3. Sources of probable cause:

                    1. Informants (confidential or not)

                    2. eye witnesses

                    3. observances by police

                    4. citizen observation followed by direct telling to police

              4. [Spenelli v. US] (69) Informant's tip, even when corroborated to extent indicated doesn't constitute probable cause. Defendant convicted of traveling w/ intent to gamble. Affidavit showed (1) travel movements (2) telephone records that defendant has two lines in aparment (3) that defendant is a known gambler to officers and bookee. (4) that FBI informed by reliable informant that defendant is booking betts by two telephone lines in apartment. Throw out totality of circumstances test. Use Aguilar test, but doesn't pass. No reason given to magistrate why informant was reliable, also tip doesn't contain sufficient statemtn of the underlying circumstances from which informer concluded that Spinelli running bookmaking operation.

                1. in absence of statement dealing w/ manner how information obtained, important that tip describe dthe accused criminal activity in sufficient detail so that magistrate may know relying on something substantial and not rumor.

                2. [draper v. Us] (59) didn't state way in which he obtained information but still met benchmark. Gave details as to travel plans and as to clothes he would be wearing when got off train. Police work corroborated a lot of information, not just one detail of report.

              5. [Aguilar] Found that warrant wasn't supported by probable cause. Warrant had been issued to police who swore only that that they had received reliable information from a creditble person and do believe drugs being stored on described premises. Held that addifdavit inadequate. Instituted Two prong test: Affidavit must show:

                1. set forth ;underlying circumstances necessary to enable magistrate to independnently to judge validity of informant's conclusion

                2. affiant/officer must support claim that informant was credible or information reliable.

              6. [Illinois v. Gates] (83) Letter sent to police to inform of drug trafficking. Based on tip, police did investigation. Matched some of the facts. Suppressed evidence due to no probable cause. Affirmed thru state courts. Held~ standing alone, anonymous letter would not provide basis for determination that there was probable cause to believe contraband would be found in Gates home or car.Used Spenelli two-proged test. Affidavit must reveal basis of knowledge and facts that establish either veracity of information or reliability of informant's report. Held~ method used by lower courts too strict. Adopt the totality of the circumstances test to see if probable cause. Abandon two prong test and replace w/ substantial basis test. Reverse ruling of suppression of the evidence.

                1. probable cause is difficult to define into neat technical rules.—balance veracity, reliability, and basis of knowledge in totality of circumstances test.

                2. [Jones v. US] Held that probable cause to search apartment established by affidavit based on informant's tip. Unamed person had bought drugs at defendants apartment, affiant said that informant had given good information before, petitioner admitted to police officer on prior occasion to be drug users.

                3. [Rugendorf v. US] Upheld determination of probable cause of finding stolen stuff in home. Warrant said certain furs stolent, reliable informant said saw them in petitioners home, had given police information before, Another corroborated and said Mr. scheills stole furs, and petitioner had been seen in his company. Third said petitioner was fence for scheills.

                4. [Ker v. CA] Held information w/in knowledge of police who search Ker's apartment provided them probable cause that drugs would be there. Aware Murphy had sold drug to police, transaction in isolated area, police saw Ker and Murphy meet in same isolated place. Murphy approached Ker's car, M had same modus operendi, although police didn't see anything change hands. Also had informant say Ker sold drugs and Murphy was source.

                5. Magistrate's determination of probable cause should be paid great deference.

            4. Notes on the Probable Cause Determination

            a. [MA v. Upton] Old girlfriend ratted on boyfriend. Warrant for burglary was upheld. All evidence together support magistrates decision that fair probability that evidence would be found in home.

            (i) For arrest, there must be a substantial probability that a crime has been committed and that the person to be arrested committed it. For a search, there must be a substantial probability that certain items are the fruits, instrumentalities or evidence of crime and that these items are presently to be found at a certain place.

            (ii) probable cause may be lacking if information given has become stale.[Steeves]

            (iii) premature information - warrant should be upheld as long as the evidence creates substantial probability that the seizable property will be on the premises when searched.

            (iv) where two people are suspected for assault and police get two warrants to search homes. Clear that only one did crime but could held valid warrant b/c no numerically precise degree of certainty is required to show probable cause.

              1. Where defendant makes a substantial preliminary showing that a false statement knowingly and intentionally, or w/ reckless disregard for the truth was included by affiant in the warrant affidavit, and if the statement is necessary to the finding of probable cause, 4th allows hearing to be held at defendant's request. If it is shown that there was intentional false statement and remaining info in affidavit is insufficient to est. probable cause, the search is excluded under fruits of the poisonous tree[Franks v. Del]

                  1. fruit of poisonous tree hypo: Cop has PC to arrest D. Doesn't get arrest warrant. Goes to house and arrests. Does search and finds incriminating evidence. Gives Miranda warnings and then brings to stationhouse. Gets confession. Held~ subsequent confession not fruit of poisonous tree since too attenuated from illegal arrest. But incriminating evidence found in house is suppressed under [Payton]

              1. Although can attack affiant's truthfulness, b/c affiant usually state agent that can be challenged under [Leon], Cannot attack credibility of informant. That's because the test is whether, when judged by neutral magistrate, a reasonable person would have found PC to do search. Here, affiant, police believed in good faith there was PC.

              2. magistrates may consider sworn, unrecorded oral testimony in making probable cause determinations during warrant proceedings; don't require written affidavit.

              3. An otherwise insufficient affidavit cannot be rehabilitated by testimony concerning information possessed by affiant when he sought the warrant but not disclosed to the issuing magistrate. This is b/c too easy to create PC after the fact w/ extra oral testimony.

            5. Notes on the Informer's Privilege

            1. [McCray v. Il] Cops arrested D on informant tip. Officers asked for name of informant at the motion to suppress. Held~ do not have to give the name of the informant if court believes that cops relied in good faith on credible information and evidence is submitted in open court.

            2. Reversing denial of disclosure is very rare, But if there is insufficient evidence to establish probable cause apart from the testimony of the arresting officer as to communications received from an informer, when issue of identity of informer is raised at hearing, suppression judge could hold in camera inquiry. Neither defendant nor his counsel may be present.

            3. Other courts have held that requiring informant to attend in camera hearing involves susbstantial risk of identity discovery.

            4. Deals with concern that police can just make up a confidential informant.

            6. Notes on Other Sources of Probable Cause

            a. information from alleged victim of or witness of crime: Prior reliability need not be shown for victim witness cases, as opposed to informant cases. Informants have air of unreliability b/c often acting out of revenge or are seeking some payment. Victim acts b/c of concern of safety for public and himself.

            (i) critical question is if general description given by victim or witness is sufficient to justify arrest of any one person.

            (ii) Robbery-4:30amdescription given of built black man driving 54 maroon ford. 20 blocks away found w/ 52 ford. Described as 5'5, but found to be 5'11. Held that victim's excitement didn't destroy ascertainment made on baissi of accurate portion of ID,- enough to constitute probable cause[Brown v. US]

            b. direct observations by police: Cops observed 2 men known to have prior convictions for larceny, carrying around record player in commercial area in evening. D said it was mom's and taking it to be repaired. When asked about tags, changed his story. Put men under arrest. Held~ standard is measured by reasonable and prudent cops as he sees them and not normal passerby, thereby cops had acted on probable cause.

            c. information and orders from official channels: Police arrested two men from description given over police bulliten and said that warrant had been issued for their arrest. Warrant had not been issued on probable cause. USSC struck down arrest b/c if no P.C. to arrest, can't insulate from challenge?? Ask Rault.

            7. Exceptions to when one needs probable cause to do a search

            a. search incident to lawful arrest

            b. Terry stop- only need reasonable suspicion

            c. regulatory search

            d. inventory search

            e. search on navigable waters

            f. parolees or prison mates

            D. Search Warrants

            1. Issuance of the Warrant

            1. “neutral and detached magistrate” requirement: AG authorized by state law to usse search warrants as JoP, issued a warrant for car in couse of investigation which he had taken personal charge and for later he served as prosecutor. Held~ procedure violated fundamental premise of 4th and 14th b/c not neutral magistrate required. [Coolidge v. NH]

            1. [Shadwick v. City of Tampa] Upheld city charter provision authorizing municipal court clerks to issue arrest warrants for municipal ordinance violations. Held~ only have to meet two tests: neutral and have the capacity to determine if violation.

            2. [Connally v. GA] Court held that search warrant had not been issued by neutral and detached magistrate where issuig JOP was unsalaried and was paid a $5 fee if he issued a warrant but nothing if denied the application.

            3. [Rooker v. Commonwealth] Suppressed evidence obtained by search warrant when judge issued w/o reading, making no determination of PC and only rubberstamped it. Held~ improper issuance even if affidavit actually shows PC.

            4. [US v. Davis] Treasury agent went to magistrate but affidavit showed that it was denied. Then next day went to another magistrate who did issue a search warrant. Held~ actions improper-decision was final and binding and denial of application was estopped from issuring a warrant on exact same showing.

            1. Particular description of the place to be searched: 4th requires particularity in the description of the place to be searched- enough if description is such that officer with a search warrant can w/ reasonable effort ascertain and identify the place intended. [Steele v. US]

              1. Most of problems arise if upon execution warrant proves to be not as certain as assumed. If each floor has an apartment 3, courts will also be receptive to showing that cops had other info which made the place apparent-occupant's name.

              2. Another problem is if cops find that some but not all the descriptive facts fit same place. Warrant was for apartment 2 with “ECRUB” on door. During execution there was one with 2 and another w/ no number but “ECRUB” on it. Upheld search of “ECRUB” b/c no real doubt as to which of the premises was intended /bc no confusion about the word on door, but could be mistaken as to number [State v. Blackburn]

              3. If multi-occupany, police must describe unit to be searched. But if it looks like single from outside and neither cops nor affiant had reason to know, then warrant isn't defective for not specifying unit.

              4. Warrant for McWebb and 3rd floor apartment. After discovering contraband during execution realized was in Garrison's separate apartment. Held~ valid search since officers failure to ealize overbreath of warrant was objectively understandable. [Md. V. Garrison]

            2. Particular description of the things to be seized: intended to prevent general searches, to prevent seizure of objects that are not authorized and to prevent warrant issued on loose, vague or doubtful bases of facts.

              1. greater degree of ambiguity will be tolerated when police have done best that could be expected in gathering and telling all of the discoverable facts [“jewelry” insufficient wher inventory available of what taken in jewelry store roberry]

              2. a more general description will be ok when nature of objects to be seized are such that can't really be more specific [description of 42 sheets of plywood sufficient considering the nature of items]

              3. a less precise description is required of property that is contraband

              4. failure to provide all descriptive facts is not basis for questioning adequacy of description be omitted facts wouldn't have been any help to executing officer [any effort to describe more particulary which furs in fur stores were stolen would have required a legion of fur experts to execute warrants]

              5. an error in statement of certain descriptive facts is not basis for questioning the adequacy of the description if officer was nonetheless able to determine from other facts given that object seized was intended one. [compressor of described brand and w/ serial number approx. that stated in warrant could be seized]

              6. Greater care in description is ordinarily needed type of property sought is generally in lawful use in substantial quanities [therefore, description of certain automobile tires and tubes held insufficient]

              7. A more particular description is required when objects of same general description ar likely to be found at particular place searched. [Cassettes unto which copyrighted films transferred held insufficient as to place w/ many other cassettes]

            3. Neutrality particularity and good faith - see [Leon]

            2. Execution of the Warrant

            1. Time of execution ~ statutes and courts hold provide usually that search warrant must be executed within 10 days

              1. proper provided that PC recited in the affidavit continues until the time of execution, giving consideration to the intervening knowledge of the officers and passage of time

              2. But although violation of 10 day period but PC hadn't dissipated, suppression not necessary [State v. Miller]

              3. Usually must be executed in the daytime, unless expressed to contrary

              4. FED statute relating to searches for controlled substances required no special showing for a nighttime search other than contraband is likely to be on property at that time[Gooding v. US]

              5. Stressed protections provided by statute when rejected that a search warrant executed in absence of occupant constitutes an unreasonable search b/c possibility of general search and pilfered by cops. Held~ overruled. [US v. Gervato]

            1. Gaining entry

              1. cops can break open doors but should knock first. [Wilson v. Ar]

              2. Cops can't just break open doors w/o knocking just b/c drug investigation. Each court must surmise if there were factors justifying dispensing w/ knock and announce rule. Look to see if dangerous, futile, or if there would be destruction of the evidence. [Richards v. Wi]

              3. Whether Richards reasonable suspicion test has been met depends on no way on whether police must destroy property in order to enter. No 4th violation where police executing warrant to seize person broke a window to deter person from going into garage to obtains weapons.[US v. Ramirez]

            2. Detention and search of persons on the premises: Can't search people hanging out at the bar when the bartender was suspected of selling drugs behind the bar. Searched D and found heroin. Held~ inadmissible b/c no reason when search authorized or during search that there was PC to believe any person at bar would be breaking the law except for bartender. Ybarra not mention in warrant and never seen buying from bar tender. At seizure, made no criminal gestures or gestures that he might be concealing contraband. Nothing suspicious. Nothing under Terry which would indicate might be armed and dangerous, no history as such and hands empty [Ybarra v. Il]

            3. Detention of persons on the premises: Detained person while he was coming down steps of house. Waited while executed search warrant of house. Found drugs in house then searched him and found more drugs. Held~upheld the seizure. Said less intrusive seizure when detain. Had police interest to prevent flight and minimizing harm to police. [Michigan v. Summers]

            4. Intensity and duration of search

              1. may extend to all parts of the premises described in the warrant

              2. may not look everywhere within the described premises

              3. only may look where the items described in the warrant might be concealed; ie can't look for typewriter in an envelope, therefore can't go thru envelopes.

              4. Once items named in search warrant have been found the search ends [unless have consent or new probable cause]

              5. If not specific as to amount of drugs, find some, can keep on looking.

            5. Seizure of items not named in search warrant: Affidavit est. PC to search home for contraband and guns from robbery. Warrant only listed the contraband-3 rings. Only guns found in search and seized. Held~inadvertence requirement avoids violation of requirement that warrant must describe the things to be seized.Court holds that eliminate the inadvertent requirement since it does not further privacy interests [Horton v. CA]

              1. obsene films suppressed where police found reels of film while searching for gambling paraphernalia and then viewed the film on a projector and screen found in another room [Stanley v. Ga]

              2. [State v. Ruscoe] where in executing warrant for filver police moved a TV, 2 VCRs and a tape deck and noticed they w/o serial numbers, found this is lawful discovery under [Hicks] as police moved items in course of searching for items listed in the warrant.

            3. The Preference for Warrants

                1. strong preference for searches made pursuant to a search warrant. [US v. Ventresca]

                2. police must whever practical obtain advance judicial approval of searches and seizures [Terry v. Ohio]

                3. But most police seizures and searches are made even in absence of warrant.Law has recognized a variety of circumstances in which police may lawfully make a search or seizure w/o the prior approval of a magistrate.

              1. exigent circumstances

              2. activity permitted w/o warrant instrudes only lesser 4th amendment values [CA v. Carney] diminished expectation of privacy - allowing warrantless search of vehicles.

              3. Police activity is merely routine - inventory searches [Co. v. bertine]

              4. Purported need for bright line rules - [US v. Watson]

              5. Warrants do Prevents bad decisions being made after the fact. Judicial decision is made w/ warrant and police account of the facts to be given before evidence is found.

                1. exceptions to warrant requirement

                1. exigent circumstances

                2. plain view

                3. arresting in public

                4. automobile exception

                5. hot pursuit

                6. Terry stop

                7. Regulatory inspection

                8. Inventory inspection

                9. Searches on navigable waterways

                10. Paroles, in jail, probation

            E. Warrantless Arrests and Searches of the Person

            1. [US v. Watson] Informant tells police that D gave stolen cards and will also do so at next meeting in 4 days. At meeting in restaurant, police arrested D w/o warrant. Appellate court held arrest unconstitutional b/c didn't get warrant even though had time to do so although act of law allowed this.Held ~ 4th doesn't requires warrant to make arrest for felony. Held ~ authorizes public arrests w/o warrant. Reverse appellate court. holding that warrant is never needed to arrest in a public place b/c a contrary holding would encumber criminal prosecutions w/ endless litigation w/ respect to existence of exigent circumstances, whether practical to get warrant, if suspect was about to flee.

            2. Notes on Arrests with and Without Warrants

            1. [Hatcher v. State] public policy in detecting and prosecuting criminal offenders outweighs the value of having arresting offices choose and enunciate the correct legal theory for arrest.

            2. Common law Presence requirement for a warrantless misdemeanor arrest: officer could not arrest for misdemeanor of driving under influence when came on scene of wreck and found D there very drunk [People v. Burdo] [People v. Dixon] after stopping noisy vehicle., office could not arrest for misdemeanor of drving w/o a license after being advised via police radio that D license had been suspended.

            3. [Street v. Surdyka] held that 4th should not be interpreted to prohibit warrantless arrest for misdemeanors committed outside officer's presence. While other jurisdictions redefined misdemeanor arrest power in terms of need.

            4. Held that use of deadly force to arrest fleeing felon is sometimes unreasonable under 4th. Unreasonable if suspect poses no immediate threat to officer or to others. Police cannot seize unarmed, nondangerous suspect by shooting him dead. But where police has PC to believe that suspect poses threat of serious physical harm to cops or to others, not unreasonable to prevent escape by deadly force. If feasible give warning. [TN v. Garner]

            5. Reasonableness standard of 4th applies to all claims that officers have used excessive force-deadly or not, in course of arrest, stop, or seizure. [Graham v. O'Connor]

              1. look to facts of case

              2. severity of crime at issue

              3. if there was immediate threat to safety of others

              4. actively resisting arrest or fleeing

              5. consider requirement of quick thinking of police

            1. If police conduct causing death or bodily harm was not search or seizure, then 14th due procees Rochin test applies. [County of Sacremento v. Lewis]

            2. [Vera Cruz v. City of Es] meaning of deadly force~ force which is reasonable likely to cause death

            3. Once suspect in custody, need for determination of neutral magistrate that there was PC to arrest increases. Held~ 4th amendment requires judicial determination of PC as prerequisite to extended restraint on liberty following police on the scene arrest. [Gerstein v. Pugh]

            4. Meaning of prompt: Jurisdiction that provides judicial determination of PC w/in 48 hours comply w/ promptness requirement of Gerstein. [County of Riverside v. McLaughlin]

            5. Allowed extradition of criminal where had arrest warrant w/ 2 affidavits and original complaint. Held~ once gov/ of state has acted on a requisition for extradiction based on demanding state's determination that PC existed, no further judicial inquiry may be had on that issue[Mi v. Doran]

            3. [US v. Robinson] D convicted on concealing herion. Overturned by Appeal as unconstitutional under 4th. Police saw D driving and b/c of dealing w/ him a few day prior believed D was driving under revoked license. Crime carries fine, jail term, or both. Put D under arrest and pat him down. Felt package and couldn't tell what it was, turned out to be drugs. Held~ search and seizure of heroin in case was permissible under 4th. “A search incident to arrest requires no additional justification. If Lawful custodial arrest reasonable to make full search of person. Under custodial arrest have authority to search incident to arrest. Crumbled up cigarette package which held drugs ok to seize and search.

            1. Well settled search incident to arrest is exception to warrant requirement of 4th. Search can be made of the person and the area w/in the control of the arrestee.

            2. Arrested for failure to have license after weaving and then search revealing box w/ pot. Held~ search valid under [Robinson]. search of D even though no previous experience w/ cop, crime didn't require jail time, and no police regulation which required cop to take D into custody or full body search. [Gustafon v. Fl]

            3. Decision to stop car is reasonable where police have PC to believe that a traffic violation has occurred. That rendered stop reasonable under 4th, the evidence is thereby admisslbe and uphold conviction. Court dismisses idea of pretex in order to make a search. A traffic violation arrest would not be rendered invalid by fact that is was a mere pretex for a drug search. [Whren v. US]

            4. [US v. Roberson] Stop for an illegal lane change was upheld when trooper noticed 4 black guys in van, van cautiously changed lanes but failed to signal.

            5. [US v. Lee] Stop upheld when saw car straddle center line for 1 second before changing into other lane. Upheld on grounds that officer had sufficient suspicion that operator was driving while impaired.

            6. Full searches of arrest person are more typically made when that person delivered to detention. Upheld that a delayed Robinson search incident to arrest and as inventory incident to booking to safeguard the property of accused to to ensure that weapons and contraband are not introduced into jail.

            7. Some limits on this: [police matron subject femal arrestee for armed robbery to strip search resulting in discovery of drugs in bra; Held not a valid search incident to arrest b/c no reason to believe weapons or evidence of crime there and not inventory b/c packet could have been inventoried w/o opening in[State v. Kaluna]

            8. [Zherung v. State] when one is arrested and brought into jail for a minor offense for which bail has already been set, he should be allowed a reasonable opportunity to attempt to raise bail before being subjected to booking procedures and incidental inventory search.

            9. Concerned admissibility of drugs found in shoulder bag during the stationhouse inventory following arrest for disturbing the peace. Held~ gov't interests greater in some instances than those following arrest. At station, proper for police to remove and list or inventory property found on person or in possession of an arrested person to be jailed. Ok to examine all items removed including should bag[IL v. Lafayette]

            10. [SD v. Opperman] upheld search of contents of glove compartment of an abandoned car lawfully impounded by police. Search was reasonable b/c it served legitimate g'vt interest that outweigh privacy interests.

            11. Concerned admissibility of paint chips obtained from D's clothing. Taken from him w/o warrant while in jail about 10 hours after his arrest. Once D is lawfully arrested and is in custody, effects in possession at detention that were subject to search at time of arrest may lawfully be searched and seized w/o warrant even though period of time has elapsed. [US v . Edwards]

            12. Interest supporting a search incident to arrest would not justify disrobing arrestee on the street, but practical necessities of routine jail admistion may even justify taking a prisioner's clothers before confining him, although step would be rare. [US v. Edwards]

            13. [US v. McCoughlin] Search illegal b/c after arrest police learned D was not addresse of package so no PC for further detentin. D was arrested upon leaving house at which mailman delivered package of drugs. AT station, police put hands under light and determined that D handled drugs which police had previously dusted w/ fluorescent drugs.

            14. [People v . Trudeau]D under arrest for burglary and in another attempted burglary w/ similar modus operandi watchman was killed and heel print left at scene. Police took shoe and matched it to heel print. Held~ seizure illegal b/c police had no PC to believe that seized shoes were evidence linked to the crime.

            15. Is police officer allowed to draw blood of person. Held~ attempt to secure evidence of blood alcohol content was an appropriate incident to petitioner's arrest. Cop might have believed dealing w/ destruction of the evidence under exigent circumstances since blood alcohol content diminishes as time goes by. Also had to go to hospital and no time to secure a warrant. [Schmerber v. CA]

            16. Held that proposed court ordered surgery on D for purpose of removing a bullet expected to show that D was the robber hit by victim's gunfire would constitute an unreasonable search. Held that state didn't show compelling need for evidence in light of other evidence. Actually a case by case weigh privacy interest vs. society interest in doing the procedure. [Winston v. Lee]

            17. [US v. McCauley] stationhouse search of vagina of incarcerated female which resulted in discovery of packet of drugs. Held that search violated due process b/c not conducted by skilled techinicians.

            18. Court has upheld other warrantless searches of body of an arrestee:

              1. placing arrestee hands under ultraviolet light

              2. swabbing arrestee's hands with a chemical substance

              3. examining hands to determine age of burn marks

              4. taking scrapings from under arrestee's fingernails

              5. taking a small sample of har from the arrestee's head

              6. obtaining urine sample from arrestee

              7. giving arrestee breathalyzer exam

              8. swabbing arrestee's penis

              9. taking dental impressions from arrestee

              10. taking pubic hair combings from him

            1. Police stopped D for speeding and then pursuant to statute that doesn't require but does allow citation in lieu of arrest, issued citation. Then officer made a full search of car and found bag of pot. Held~ reversed admissibility of the evidence obtained in search. Argued that the threat to officer safety a lot less from issuing traffic citation than custodial arrest. Held~ search illegal [ Knowles v. Iowa]

            2. [state v. Greenslit] upheld search of person incident to issuance of notice to appear for present use of pot.

            3. search of person w/o any arrest at all- held that where Murphy voluntarily appeared at station to talk to police and then police notice blood underneath fingernails, police had PC to arrest him but didn't put him under arrest. Held~ warrantless taking of scrapings of fingernails was constitutionally permissible.[Cupp v. Murphy]

            4. [PA v. Mimms] Pulled over vehicle w/ expired license plate for purpose of issuing traffic citation and then ordered driver out of car which resulted in observation of large bulge in pocket. Prompted frisk and discovery of gun. Held that additional intrusion can only be described as de minimus and was justified since it reduces likelihood of assault.

            F. Warrantless Searches of Premises, Vehicles, and Containers

            1. [Chimel] (69) Cops had warrant to arrest for burglary of coin shop. Looked through the entire 3 bedroom house w/o search warrant and no consent. Told D would search. Directed wife to open drawers. Can warrantless search of D's entire house be justified as incident to that arrest?Held~ Search unreasonable b/c went far beyond petioner's person and the area from within which he might have obtained a weapon or something that could have been used as evidence against him. No constitutional justification, w/o warrant, for extending the search beyond that area. Scope of the search unreasonable under the 4th.

            2. Notes on Search of Premises Incident to and After Arrest

                1. court have allowed applied [chimel] “immediate control” test to assume that D maintain control over a considerable area even after they have been arrested. Can search area where D might have hid evidence or might have weapon near by.

                2. [People v. Perry] 4 officers broke into hotel room, saw D place something in dresser drawer, handcuffed him and took him out into the corridor, then immediately search the partially open drawer and purse on bed. Held under [Chimel] reasonable since it was w/in area drom which D could have obtained a weapon or something that could have been used as evidence against him.

                3. When is it necessary for D to put on street clothes: D arrested at front door went into bedroom to change into street clothes. Held~ police could look into dresser drawer D was about to open and gun found therein admissible.[Lucas] Dissent argues D said ready to go and desire to limit intrusion of privacy.

                4. Officers acting for their own protection/protective sweep: Warrant not required. Held~ incident to arrest the officers could, as precautionary matter and w/o PC or RS look in closets and other spaces immediately adjoining the place of arrest from which an attack could be launched. If more than just a protective sweep, need facts which support reasonable (RS) officer thinking area has person that could be danger. Sweep can last no longer than what is needed to dispel RS of danger-and no longer than what is needed to complete arrest and depart.[Md v. Buie]

                5. When officers seeking other offenders: officers checking out tip of drug seller, open door and smell pot. Arrest 5 who smell of pot in living& dining room. Then went upstairs where he found pot in plain view. Held~ reasonable b/c didn't know how many people in house and upstairs light is on.

                6. [WA v. Chrismand] a warrantless entry of premises will be permissible to and following an arrest elsewhere. Cop arrested apparently underage student drinking. Went w/ him back to room so student could show ID where found pot. Held~ entry lawful b/c possibility of escape. Can monitor the mov'ts of an arrested person, as judgement dictates following an arrest.

            3. Notes on Warrantless Searches While in Premises to Arrest

              1. if officer lawfully present w/in premises to make arrest, he may observe certain items not w/in “immediate control” of the arrestee which will be subject to warrantless seizure under “plain view”

              2. Extention of original justification is legitimate only where it is immediately apparent to police that they have evidence before them. Plain view cannot be used to extend a general exploratory search from one object to another until something incriminating at last emerges[Coolidge v. NH]

              3. Police lawfully entered house from which a weapon was fired and noticed stereo which seemed to be out of place. Suspected that they were stolen and recorded their serial numbers and moved some components in order to do so. Ended up that matched some equipment from robbery. Held~ moving of the equipment was unreasonable search. [Arizona v. Hicks]

                1. a truly cursory inspection, one that involves merely looking at what is already exposed to view, w/o disturbing it, is not a search and doesn't require even RS.

            4. Notes on Warrantless Searches-Exigent Circumstances

            1. a search may be incident to an arrest only if it is substantially contemporaneous w/ arrest and is confined to the immediate vicinity of the arrest. If a search of a house is to be upheld, arrest must take place inside the house, not outside. Can't enter house b/c believe evidence is inside w/o a warrant

            2. Cops witness what they believe is Vale selling drugs to S. S car is blocked and then he pops something in his mouth. Then arrest Vale on front steps and police advise they are going to search the house. Makes cursory inspection to see if anyone in house and then mom and brother show up. Held~ search unreasonable. Knew know one else in the house.Able to get 2 warrants for arrest. No exigent circumstances [Vale v. LA]

            3. Police observed drug sale w/ D and another. Went to apartment. Arrested S in lobby, and when C opened door after knock he was arrested. Made warrantless entry of apartment and remained there until a search warrant was issued 19 hours later b/c of administrative problems. Held~ when cops have PC enter premises and arrest and secure the premises to preserve the status qua while others in good faith are in process of obtaining warrant, do not violate 4th proscription against unreasonable seizure. Also held evidence 1st discovered in execution of warrant was not a fruit of an illegal entry. [Segura v. US]

            4. [US v. Place] intrusion on possessory interests occasioned by a seizure can vary both in its nature and extent. The seizure may be made after owner has relinquished control of the property to third party from immediate custody and control of the owner.

            5. [US v. Rubin] when gov't agents have PC to believe contraband is present and based on other circumstances they reasonably conclude tha the evidence will be destroyed or removed before they secure a search warrant, a warrantless search is justified. Relevant circumstances:

              1. the degree of urgency involved and the amount of time necessary to obtain a warrant

              2. reasonable belief that the contraband is about to be removed

              3. the possibility of danger to police officers guarding the site of the contraband while a search warrant is sought

              4. information indicating the possessors of the contraband are aware tha the police are on their trail

              5. the ready destructibility of the contraband and the knowledge that efforts to dispose of the drugs and to escape are characteristic behavior of persons engaged in the drug traffic.

            1. permissible for police to engage in trickery which causes occupant to remove the evidence to another place where the warrantless search is permissible. [State v. Hendrix] Proper for police to telephone residence w/ anonymous false tip that police were on their way w/ search warrant causing D to leave w/ drugs in the car, which was then stopped and searched.

            2. Court declined to hold that the seriousness of the offencse under investigation itself creates exigent circumstances of the kind that under the 4th justify a warrantless search. [Mincey v. AZ]

            3. [Thompson v. LA] invalidated a two hour general search of premises to which police were summoned b/c of D's attempt to get medical assistance after shooting her husband. Held that while in house to assist could have seized evidence in plain view and could have made a limited search for a suspect or for other victims.

            4. When evidence is fortuitously discovered by police w/o a warrant while they are performing othe functions, courts find it necessary to assess reasonabless of police conduct under 4th. [Geimer v. State] evidence admissible as entry was on reasonable belief that a person w/in the premises is in need of aid where one of missing persons son said weird for dad to leave w/o telling anyone and other son told various stories regarding absence.

            5. Evidence surpressed as where car at accident scene suffered minor damage, key left in ignition, car door left open and no response when officer rang bell and knocked at home of car owner. Held~ such facts could not reasonably lead to conflucion that drive might have needed aid.

            5. [Payton v. NY] Held~If there is evidence of participation in a felong to presuage a magistrate that arrest is justified, it is constitutional reasonable to require him to open doors to officers of law. Under 4th, an arrest warrant founded on PC implicitly carries w/ it limited authority to enter a swelling in which the suspect lives when there is reason to believe that the suspect is within. b/c no arrest warrant was obtained in either case judgements reversed.

              1. warrestless arrests in public places are valid, but greater burden for cops who enter a home w/o consent.

              2. Police had PC to established D committed murder. Went to apartment w/o warrant. No response to knock, called EMS and then used crowbars to open doors. Found and seized gun in plain view.

              3. D2 was arrested for armed robbery. Identified by victims and went to house w/o warrant to arrest. D2 seen covered by sheet when son opened the door. Entered house and placed under arrest. Put him under arrest and searched bedside table which had drugs

              4. Four restrictions on home arrests:


            (xx) knock and announce

            (xxx) daytime

            (xxxx) stringent PC

            1. Where police were reliably informed that an armed robbery had taken place and the D had entered a house 5 minutes earlier, Court concluded cops acted reasonably when entered the house and began to search for man w/ that description.[Warden v. Hayden]

            2. [US v. Santana] held that [US v. Watson] permitted police to attempt warrantless arrest of D when found standing directly in doorway-one step in and one step out of house. Court reasoned that she was in a public place as she was not merely visible to public but exposed to public view, speech, hearing and touch. Thus, under Hayden “hot pursuit rule” police could pursue w/o a warrant when she sought refuge upon approach.

            3. [Doorman] factors:

              1. that a grave offense is involved, esp. if one of violence

              2. suspect is reasonable believed to be armed

              3. clear showing of PC including reasonably trustworthy infor to believe that the suspect committed crime involved

              4. strong reason to believe D on the premises

              5. likelihood that suspect will escape if not swiftly apprehended

              6. entry though no consent is made peaceably

            4. fact that entry is made at night raises a concern over its reasonableness

            5. D arrested in own home mintues after witness had seen him nearby driving erractically and then departing on foot drunk. Held that important factor is determining whether any exigency exists is gravity of offense for which arrest is being made. NO exigency created simply b/c there is PC that a serious crime has been committed. Held~ no exigent circumstances since only minor crime. Also no immediate pursuit and only noncriminal civil crime in Wi. w/ no possibility of imprisonment[Welsh v. Wi]

            6. Lone gunman robbed gas station and fatally shot manager. Cop heard report of suspect of Ecker. Cop drove straight to home and arrived at same time car did. Car took evasive action, spun out of control and came to stop. Two men fled on foot. Ecker later identified as gunman captured shortly therafter inside home. In abandoned car, found $ and gun and found title certificate of D and other stuff..D thought to be man who was driver during robbery. D staying at girlfriend's house. PC bulletin. Called and heard D say “Tell them I'm not here”. Held~ no exigent circumstances that justified the warrantless entry into the house to make arrest. Evident that D was going no where.[Mn v. Olson]

            7. Police entered D's home in effort to find Lyons for whom they had arrest warrant, but only found drugs in plain view. Held~ conviction of drugs reversed. Warrant only authorized seizure of Lyons. Entered home of 3rd on belief that D was there. While warrant may have protected Lyons from an unreasonable seizure, it did nothing to protect D's privacy interest in being free from an unreasonable invasion and search of home. Fruit of poisionous tree b/c no lawful invasion of steagald's home[Steagald v. US]

            8. [Lankford v. Gelston] enjoining police practice under which 300 homes searched pursuant to arreset warrant for 2 fugitives.

            9. An unannounced entry of premises to make arrest therein is subject to 4th limitations like those regarding unannounced entry to execute a search warrant. [Richards v. Ws]

            10. State statute decling an officer may not enter to arrest unless he has been denied admittance after giving notice of his office and purpose have usually been interpreted as CL `exigent circumstances” when there is reasonable belief compliance would increase peril, frustrate arrest, or permit the destruction of evidence.

            6. D under surveillance to exchanging drugs for sex w/ boys. Cops had boy, after leaving motorhome after 1 hour, knock on door. When D opened it, w/o warrant and w/o consent, entered motor home and saw drugs in plain view. Took D into custody and took possession of motorhome.Held~ search not unreasonable b/c motorhome was easily moveable, licensed to operate on public streets, and objective observer would conclude not being used as home, but as vehicle.[CA v. Carney]

            1. [Carroll v. US] the privacy interests in a car are constitutionally protected. But held tha the ready mobility of car justifies a lesser degree of protection of those interests. The expectation of privacy w/ respect to one's car is significantly less than one's home or office.

            2. [Cardwell v. Lewis] b/c passenger compartment of a standard car is relatively open to plain view, there are lesser expectations of privacy, including locked car trunk, a sealed package in a car trunk, closed compartment under dashboard, interior of a vehicle's upholstery, or sealed packages inside a covered pickup truck.

            3. Regulations of cars leads to lesser expectation of privacy.

            4. Factors to consider if motorhome that objectively looks like being used as residence:

              1. location

              2. if readily mobile or elevated on blocks

              3. if connected to utilities

              4. if convenient access to a public road

            1. [Coolidge v. NH] a plurality refused to apply the automobile exception to an automobile that was seized while parked in the driveway of D's house, towed to a secure police compound, and later searched.

            2. [Chambers v. Maroney] “ready mobility” language in Carney does not refer to actual likelihood that vehicle would be moved if a search warrant were sought. Police stopped wagon on PC that D committed robbery, occupants arrested and car driven to station-thorough search revealed gun. Held~ reasonable search since

              1. wagon could have been searched on the spot since there was PC to search and it was a fleeting target for a search

              2. not unreasonable to bring to station since arrest made in dark lot at night

              3. immediate search ok

            3. [Co v. Bannister] court held that where PC to search developed after car was stopped for traffic violation, it would be especially unreasonable to require a detour to a magistrate before unanticipated evidence could be lawfully seized.

            4. [Mi v. Thomas] justification to conduct such a warrantless search does not vanish once car has been immobilized, nor does it depend on likelihood that car would have been driven away, or contents would be tampered with during period required for police to obtain warrant.

            5. [Fl v. Meyers] error in concluding warrantless search of car improper where the car had been impounded 8 hours earlier and was stored in a secure area.

            6. [US v. Jones] Need PC to search a particular auto for particular autos even if no warrant- D stopped after made illegal turn and ran red light while driving car w/o plates, as office approach he saw D tear paper into small pieces and pursh them between seat and back cushions, D was arrested and placed in car after showed dirver's licens of antoher person, officer retried pieces of paper while turned out to be stolen welfare check.

            7. [US v. Coleman] Evidence suppressed when officer after checking out suspicious persons and obtained consent to look in trunk of car owned by one of them and found gun, after which the 2 were arrested, detective came and searched car and seized a revolver, ski masks, and two shopping bags- no idea what detective reasonably expected to find inside car other than interior.

            8. [Maldonado v. state] was search limited in scope—truck searched on PC it was stolen, officers pulled up flooring and found false compartment containing pot. Held~ part of search illegal b/c it could not be reasonably expected that evidence of theft might be uncovered by these means.

            9. [Wimberly]after vehicle stopped for traffic violation, office saw pipe and pot and smelled it too. Trunk of car then search and then several pounds found. Held~ later search illegal as police had PC that occupants were users than dealers, and not reasonable to inter petitioners had additional contraband hidden in trunk. But other hold user/dealer distinction not logical.

            10. [US v. Di RE] Cops cannot search passenger when do have grounds to make warrantless search of a car, but no grounds to arrest some occupant of car, occupant cannot also be searched if items sought are such a nature that could be concealed on that person.

            11. [Md v. Dyeson] Police had lots of PC that car about to come into state would be carrying drugs. Knew 2 days before and didn't get warrant. Court held that b/c it was car-automobile exception applied.

            7. D picked up package known to have pot from Fed. Ex. And took to apartment. Then took package to car and put it in trunk of car. Police then stopped him opened trunk and bag and found pot.Does 4th require the police to obtain a warrant to open sack in a moveable vehicle simply b/c they lack PC to search the entire car. Held~ 4th doesn't require compel separate treatment for a car that extends only to a container w/in the vehicle[CA v. Acevedo]

            1. police may search w/o warrant if search is supported by PC

            2. get rid of distinction w/ Sanders and Chadwick

            3. f PC justifies search of a lawfully stopped car, it justifies searched of every part of car and its contents that may conceal the object of the search.

            4. Greater expectation of privacy in luggage and personal effects than vehicles.

            5. [US v. Ross] a warrantless search not unreasonable of a car under Carroll doctrine could include a search of a container or package found inside the car when such a search was supported by PC.

            6. Warrantless search of knotted balloon found w/ several plastic vials. Court held that balloons were one of those rare single purpose contains which by their very nature cannot support any reasonable expection of privacy b/c contents can be inferred from their outward appearance.[TX v. Brown]

            7. Allowed admissibility when custom agents found pot inside table shipped and then repackaged and delivered to D. Surveilling police saw D putll container into apartment and when he reemerged w/ it and he was arrested and package searched w/o warrant. [IL v. Andreas] No protected privacy interest remains in contraband in a container once gov't officers lawfully have opened container and identified its contents as illegal. Resealing container doesn't operate to revive or restore the lawfully invaded privacy rights.

            8. If have PC as to container and container put into car. Get easily moveable vehicle exception. Can search car for container. Anything in plain view is admissible. But w/o more PC, can't open something that can't hold gun or isn't easily destroyable evidence. [Similar to quiz hypo]

            8. D pulled over for speeding. PC that D had pot b/c smelled it and saw an envelope on floor marked supergold. Arrested and placed in custody for possession of pot. Opened envelope, Then searched glove compartment and discovered searched jacket in back seat of car- found coke in jacket of Belton. Was search of jacket unreasonable under 4th?.[NY v. Belton]

            1. relies on [Chimel] allows contemporaneous search w/o warrant of person arrested and immediately surrounding area.

            2. [Robinson] under lawful custodial arrest, ok to do full search of person w/o warrant and is reasonable under 4th.

            3. Answers what is the proper scope of search of interior of car incident to lawful custodial arrest of occupants? Police may search the passenger compartment of car and any containers found w/in the passenger compartment, whether opened or closed. Includes:

              1. closed or open glove compartments

              2. consoles

              3. other receptacles located anywhere w/in passenger compartment

              4. luggage, boxes, bags, clothing

              5. Doesn't include the trunk of car - check local law for wagons

            d. [Wy v. Houghton] (99) PC to pull over car. See seringe in breast pocket of driver. Driver admits it is for his drugs. Searches whole car and all the people in car. Upheld conviction of passenger. Distinguish from Ybarra since it is more likely passenger in car will be compatriot. If don't allow search of passenger, every driver will give contraband to passengers b/c can't be searched.

            9. Arrested D for DWI and took into custody. Backup officer inventoried contents of car and found large amount of $ and drugs. Does 4th prohibit State from proving these charges w/ evidence discovered during inventory of van. Held~ 4th does not prohibit inventory search incident to arrest [Co v. Bertine]

            1. inventory searches well defined exception to warrant requirement.

            2. Policy behind search is not to investigate criminal conduct but to secure D property and to insure against claims of lost or stolen property.

            3. [Lafayette] ok search into D's shoulder bag when taken into custody

            4. inventory of a locked suitcase found in impounded vehicle was unlawfule under Bertine b/c Fl. Had no policy w/ respect to opening closed container during inventory search [Fl v. Wells]

            5. evidence found in otherwise lawful inventory search must be suppressed if the prior impoundment of vehicle was not justified.

            10. Evidence found in otherwise lawful inventory must be suppressed if the prior impoundment of vehicle is not justified. [Dyke v. Taylor] search of car outside courthouse while driver, arrested for reckless driving, inside to post bond was improper, as “no indication that police had purported to impound or hold the car or authorized by state law to do so”.

            11. If policy is not written but officer just testifies to that is the policy of impounding the car, courts have held that inventory search has sufficient grounds, although others have criticized b/c not memorialized and testimony is self-serving.

            12. [Ex parte Boyd] no case authorizes inventory search 4 days after the car has been impounded. Search should be contemporaneous or done as soon thereafter as would be safe and practical when don't have warrant. Held~ must be a temporal proximity between impoundment and inventory.

            G. Stop and Frisk

            1. Where police officer observes unsual conduct which leads him to reasonably conclude in light of his experience that criminal activity may be afoot and that the persons w/ whom he is dealing may be armed and presently dangerous; where in course of investigating behavior he identifies himself as police man and makes reasonable inquires, and whre nothing in initial stages of encounter serves to dispel his reasonable fear for his own or others safety, he is entitled for protection to conduct a carefully limited search of outer clothing in an attempt to discover weapons. Reasonable under 4th to seize weapons and introduce into evidence. [Terry v. Ohio]

            1. if have reasonable suspicion of criminal activity, ok to pat down D after police watch him “casing up” a stickup. Approached and asked for ID, guys only mumbled. Ok to swing around, pat down, and seize revolver and introduce into evidence against him.

            2. Only when officer by means of physical force or show of authority has in some way restrained the liberty of citizen does “seizure” occur.

            3. Objective standard if reasonable person would believe officer at moment of seizure taken appropriate action.

            4. Pat down cannot be full search.

            5. Permit reasonable search for weapons for protection of officer where has reason to believe he is dealing w/ armed and dangerous individual, regardless if he has PC to arrest person for crime.

            6. Harlan in dissent argues that must have reasonable suspicion even to make that forcible stop.

            2. Significance of the Stop and Frisk Cases

            1. the Utility of the Balancing Test: dissent argues against use of balancing test when allow search warrant authorizes police to detain occupants while warrant is executed. Reason that if hold person on less than PC, must demonstrate extraordinary obstacle to such investigation.

            b. police action short of a seizure

              1. Police get on bus while it is on stop over. W/o art. Suspicion, pick out D and inspect ticket and ID. Returned but explained agents looking for illegal drug trafficking. Requested consent to search luggage, argument if consent given for second bag where contraband was found. Held~ search not improper. Seizure doesn't occur simply b/c police approaches individual and asks ?s. As long as reasonable person would feel free to leave, encounter is consentual and no reasonable suspicion is required.[Fl v. Bostick] Mere fact that D didn't feel free to leave doesn't mean that it was a seizure. Wouldn't feel free to leave anyway b/c bus was about to leave. Remand to see if seizure occurred under “totality of circumstances test” not just b/c encounter took place on bus.

                1. clear that such an encounter if happened outside bus or in airport wouldn't be consider seizure. b/c consentual encounter.

                2. [Ins v. Delgado] No seizure even though workers were not free to leave the building w/o being questions. aGents conduct should have given employees no reason to believe that they would be detained if they gave truthful answers to the questions put to them or if they simply refused to answer. Agents would stand outside building while some went thru and asked employees if there were any illegal aliens. Freedom of mov't independent of police conduct.

                3. Crucial test is Whether reasonable man would feel he was at liberty to ignore police presence and go about business- where such encounter takes places is only one factor not only one.

                4. Refusal to cooperate w/o more does not furnish the minimal level of objective justification needed for a detention or seizure.

                5. Reject argument he must have been seized b/c no reasonable person would consent to search of luggage that knows contains drugs.- reasonable man presupposes, innocent not guilty person.

              2. W/ respect to a show of authority as w/ respect to application of physical force, a seizure does not occur even though subject does not yield.[CA v. Hodari] H fled upon seeing approaching car and while being chased D tossed away crack cocaine. Court reversed suppression of evidence. NO “seizure” if yell to stop but D keeps running.

              3. Arrest is not continuing fact- if D had been touched by cop and then broke away and threw away cocaine, evidence was still not disclosed during course of an arrest.

              4. [county of sacremento v. lewis] No 4th seizure would take place whre a pursuing police car south to stop the suspect only by show of authority represented by flashing lights and continuing pursuit, even though accidently stopped him when later crashed into him- for 4th seizure there must be a gov't termination of freedom of mov't thru intentional means.

              5. “seizure” means lauying on of hands or application of physical force to restrain mov't, even when it is ultimately unsuccessful. - still seizure if grab D but then breaks away.

              6. [US v. Lender] No seizure where cops yells at D to stop. He says “you don't want me” yells again and D did stop. Gun fell out and cop prevents D from getting gun. Held~ no prior seizure of D.

              7. [US v. Wood] when officer ordered D to stop, D froze in tracks and immediately dropped weapon-Held~ prior seizure-very submissive response.

              8. [Tom v. Voida] where and pursuit and when suspect fell on ice, officer kneeled on him but suspect violently resisted and broke away, seizure occurred when officer overtook him on the ice and physically touched him.

              9. [US v. Holloway] where after D's car boxed in by police cares D accelerated into police car behind him, no prior seizure, as no “touching” of D and no submission given that he then decided to flee.

              10. [US v. Wilson] airport encounter between DEA agent and a drug courer supect, D granted request to speak w/ him and submitted to ?s, produced ID, and allowed searched of a bag and person. But when asked to searched 2 coats D was carrying, D said no and walked away. Agent followed him all the way outside asking him to consent to search, and D finally consented which lead to 2 bags of coke. Argue no 4th protection since never lost its consensual nature.

              11. [In reJM] Majority concluded 14 year old consent. Concurring judges argued considered objectively observable characteristics of person who is the object of police conduct. Majority applied “objective standard” test under Bostick. Should age and race be relevant factors?

            c. grounds for temporary seizure of investigation

              1. for arrest, it must be more probable than not that the person to be seized is the offender

              2. Under [Terry] it should be sufficient that there is a substantial possibility that a crime has been or is about to be committed and that the suspect is the person who committed or is planning the offense.

              3. Under this court, officers must have a particularized and objective basis for suspecting the particular person stopped of criminal activity[US v. Cortez]

                1. objective observations, info from reports, and patterns of oerpation of certain kinds of lawbreakers→inferences and deductions

                2. must lead to suspicion that person being stopped engaged in wrongdoing

              1. Cop testified watched D for several hours talking w/ known addicts. Nothing overheard or any exchange seen. Cop followed him into restaurant, ordered him outside and said “you know what I'm after”. D mumbled and put hand into pocket, cop reached into same pocket and pulled out drugs. Held~ improper manner and grounds for frisk. Not reasonable inference that engaging in criminal drug trafficking. [Sibron v. US]

              2. Cops got anonymous tip that D would be leaving and heading to motel and would be carrying drugs. Followed her and stopped her right before reached motel. Consented to the search of attaché case. Held~ upheld validity of stop b/c tip in this case similar to the one in [Gates]- tip is detailed and had been corroborated, not as as high in Gates, but required degree of suspicion, reasonable suspicion is also not as high. [Al v. White]

            1. “RS is less demanding than PC b/c RS can be proven w/ info different in quantity than required to est. PC, but also b/c RS can arise from info that is less reliable than what is needed for PC.

            2. Both dependent upon content of info and degree of reliability. Both considered in totality of circumstances to see if RS.

            3. Important as in Gates that tip included corroborated statement of D's future actions not easily predicted-demos inside info.

            (vi) RS found when D stopped at airport by agents who knew that paid for tickets in cash, traveling under false name, orig. destination was Miami, a big drug city known by police, stayed in Miami only 48 hours even though very far away from Hw, appeared to be nervous, and checked no luggage. Fact that factors looked at by court are listed in “profile” doesn't detract from evidentiary significance as seen by train agent to show that he had RS. Argument against is that profiles lead to dulling decision making skills. Use of profiles should not be negative factor in finding if cop had RS to stop[US v. Sokolow]

            (vii) If police have a RS grounded in specific and articulable facts that a person they encounter was involved in or is wanted in connection w/ a completed felony, then a Terry stop may be made to investigate that suspicion.[US v. Hensley]

            d. Permissible extent of temporary seizure

              1. [US v. Jennings] 25 minutes too long where suspect cooperated fully and no greater suspicion developed

              2. [US v. Richards] 1 hour not too long where suspects gave implausible responses to ?s, adding to initial suspicion, and police used most diligently means to clarify situation.

              3. [People v. Harris] impermissible to transport suspect to a nearby crime schene for possible identification as the perpetrator

              4. Police asked D to come to a room 40ft. away while at airport. Luggage brought there and then consented to search of luggage after 15 min[Fl v. Royer] Held~ an investigative detention must be temporary and last no longer than is necessary to effectuate the purpose of the stop. Methods used must use least intrusive means available to verify/dispel suspicion. State has burden of proving RS for seizure was sufficiently limited in scope and duration. Unreasonable under 4th.

                1. situated escalated into investigatory procedure in a police interrogation room, therefore D was under arrest.

                2. Officer's conduct more intrusive than necessary under Terry when moved to room. Should have done search, if consented to, right there.

                3. Maybe could have used trained dogs to expedite matter

            (v) DEA saw overloaded camper and car driving in tadem. Got assistance and only one of the cars pulled over. DEA got ID of car driver and waited for assistance. When others arrived, then went on to pull over the camper. Smelled pot coming from truck and discovered bales of pot. Put camper driver under arrest. Held~ no rigid time limitation under [Terry]. Must see if cops diligently pursued means of investigation that was likely to confirm or dispel suspicions quickly, during which time it was necessary to detain the D. Ask was it unreasonable for police not to follow a less intrusive means? Held~ here delay was not unreasonable b/c most of 20 delay is due to evasive means used by D and by trying to get backup. Once he did get backup, he moved quickly. [US v. Sharpe]

            (vi) Court overturned vague statute which made it illegal for D to fail to provide credible and reliable identification when lawfully stopped under [Terry] [Kolender v. Lawson]

              1. If officer who made stop has checked out the driver's license and vehicle registration and has written up the traffic violation or warning, the any extention of the stop thereafter for the purpose of ? about drugs or seeking consent to search for drugs is illegal. [US v. Fernandez]

              2. Ok to question on unrelated matters as to other criminality unobjectionable provided it is accomplished w/in permissible time span of traffic stop. [US v. Crain]

              3. Sometimes necessary to determine if a traffic stop was extended or instead terminated at a certain point. Even if finished writing ticket, if haven't given back license or other stuff, stop hasn't terminated.

              4. If cops returns license and then cops asks one more thing, return of papers manifests to driver he is free to leave, thus when remain and respond to police, it is a consentual encounter.[US v. Werking]

            (x) Pulled D over for speeding. Ran check and nothing came up. Returned license and gave warning, then immediately asked if drugs in car. Then D consented to search of car which led to discovery of small amount of pot. Held~ cop not required to tell D he is free to go before finding a voluntary consent [Ohio v. Robinette]

            e. Temporary seizure of effects

                1. Post office official warned cop of suspicious mailing. Cop noticed false return address b/c guy had a Canadian plate. Noted that where packages where going where under investigation for illegal coin trafficking. Packages held for a day while search warrant obtained. Held~ under Terry held that detention w/o warrant was ok under 4th, during the investigation since not unreasonable seizure of “papers or effects”[ US v. Van Leeuwen]

                2. Stopped drug courier at airport and took luggage for taking it to judge while warrant was sought and allowed D to go on his way. Took bags to another airport in NYC where trained dogs reacted to1 bag and not other bag. This occurred late Friday, held until Monday when could get warrant and found drugs. Held~ police conduct exceeded permits of Terry b/c of length 90 minute detension of D's luggage. [US v. Place]

                  1. violation exacerabated by failing to inform D of place they transported luggage, failing to say how long he might be dispossessed, and what arrangements would be made for return of luggage.

            f. Protective search

            1. in self protective search for weapons, cops must be able to pointo to particular facts from which he reasonably inferred that individual was armed and dangerous

            2. Court held that cop did have ample reason to fear for his own safey upon being told by informant that D, seated in nearby car, had gun on him. Further, when approached and D only rolled down window instead of getting out of car, ok to grap at waist where gun was. Reasonable limited intrusion[Adams v. Williams]

            3. Cop overstepped bounds when frisking officer felt a small lump in suspect's left pocket and then concluded after more examination it was lump of crack, and then removed it. Court held that knew it was contraband after manipulating outside of pocket after cop knew it was no weapon. [Mn v. Dickerson]

            4. Cops stopped when car drove off road. D met cops at rear of car, gave license upon demand, started back to get vehicle registration. Saw of knife in plain view and D was frisked and one cop entered car and found pot. Held~ search of passenger compartment of car, limited to areas where weapon may be hidden, is permissible if cops have reasonable belief based on specific facts which reasonably warrant the officers' belief that suspect is dangerous and may gain immediate control of weapons[Mi v. Long]

            5. Even though cop had good reason to believe D was lying that had no ID, looking in wallet is violation of 4th.

            6. [State v. Flynn] Stopped suspect for burglary admitted he had ID in wallet but refused to give it. Officer removed it necessary to gain name. Checked and found that had arrest warrant out for earlier crime. Held~ under balancing test actions reasonable.

            7. Ok to do on the scene fingerprinting if RS to suspect has committed a crinal act and reasonable basis for believing that fingerprinting to verify or dispel connect w/ crime.

            g. Other brief deterntion for investigation

            1. 25 black males detained for ? and fingerprinting in connection w/ rape where only had fingerprints and general description. Held~ prints should be excluded as illegal seizure of petitioner in violation of 4th, but a detention for such a purpose might be permissible if just fingerprinted. Here unreasonable b/c fingerprinted and interrogated[Davis v. Mi]

            2. [US v. Dionisio] no 4th violation for subpoenaing witness to appear before grand jury to give voice samples or handwriting samples

            3. OK to submit whole class of students to fingerprints when ring of that graduating class found near murder victim.

            4. Police lacked ground to arrest in murder but picked up for questioning. Placed in interrogation room, given Miranda warnings, and then gave incriminating statements after waived attorney. Held~detention was indistinguishable from arrest. Picked up at home, to police car, to station. Was not free to go.[Dunaway v. NY]

            H. Administrative Inspections and Regulatory Searches

                  1. Some -Requires no individualized suspicion but instead to require that seizure or search be conducted pursuant to some neutral criteria which guard against arbitrary selection of those subjected to such procedures. Others requires individualized suspicion, reasonable suspicion.

                  2. [Camera v. Municipal Ct] dealing w/ fire, health, and housing inspections code-held if occupant did not consent to inspetion, the authorities would have to get warrant. If no consent and need PC to issue warrant to inspect must exist if reasonable standards for conducting an area inspection are satified w/ respect to a particular dwelling. Ex: if no consent to enter dwelling that had recently had fire, get warrant so can determine cause and origin of fire. Usually do have right to enter to put out fire and to hang around to do investigation.

                  3. [US v. Ramsey] ok for customs inspections of mail entering US

                  4. [Almedia] cops can only stop vehicles looking for illegal aliens if have PC. Can at checkpoints where everyone is stopped.

                  5. [Mich. Dept. of St. Police v Sitz] Upheld sobriety checkpoint program there- intrusion upon motorist is slight, limited police discretion-everyone is checked, program dealt w/ very important problem. Only addressed intial stop and prelim. Questions. More extensive sobriety testing requires satisfaction of indiz. Suspicion standard.

                    1. [Delaware v. prouse] usually can't stop individuals for purpose of checking's driver's license and registration absent reasonable suspicion. But can stop for roadblocks.

            3. [NJ v. TLO] Balanced need of privacy v. need of schools to make place where can learn. Held officerial need not obtain a warrant before searching student who is under their authority, A search of student by teacher will be justified at its inception where there are reasonable grounds for suspecting search will turn up evidence that student has or is violating rules of school or the law. Serach will be permissible in its scope and not excessively intrusive in light of age and sex and nature of infraction.

            4. [Griffin v. Ws] supervision of parolees: States operation of probation system presents special needs that may justify departures from usual warrant and PC requirements. No warrant required for search of probationers's home. Full PC not required either b/c reduces deterrent effect of supervisory arrangement.

            5. [National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raub] Suspicionless testing of employees who apply for promotion directly involving the interdiction of illegal drugs or positions which require carrying firearms is reasonable. Diminished expectation of privacy for those who apply and gov't interests.

            6. [Skinner v. Railroad Labor Executive Assn] upheld blood and urine testing for RR employees following major train accidents and whose who violate certain safety rules. Don't need RS even b/c special danger, diminished expectation of privacy, limited discretion RR employers had regarding who and when to test.

            7. [Veronia School District v. Acton] upheld district policy under which each week 10% of students in athletics were randomly selected to urine test. Lesser expectation of privacy w/in school environment, especially those who subject themselves to regulation by going out for sports, invasive aspect kept to minimum, school also had big crisis w/ drug problem. Drugs more dangerous to athletes.

            I. Consent Searches

            1. Nature of Consent

            1. When subject of search is not in custody and state attempts to justify search on basis of consent, 4th and 14th require that consent was voluntarily given, and not result of duress or coercion, express or implied. Cops do not have to effectively warn of 4th amendment rights before an effective waiver is found. [Schneckltoth v. Bustamonte] Stopped car for missing headlight. Asked passenger, purported brother of owner, who then consented. if he could search car. Stolen checks found which implicated passenger Bustamonte. When does state prove effectively that consent was “voluntarily given?”

              1. look to totality of circumstances. Subject's knowledge of right to refuse is a factor to be taken into account, pros. not required to demonstrate such knowledge as prerequisite to est. vol. consent.

              2. [Miranda] found that nature of custodial surroundings and police questioning were inherently coercive. Give warnings since no statement obtained from D can truly be product of free choice.

              3. Does [Johnson v. Zerbst]'s waiver test apply- no b/c inconsistent w/ third party consent. Courts have allowed 3rd party consent to areas- here clear question to ask is not did D give a knowing waiver of rights.

              4. [Coolidge v. NH] wife surrended to police guns and clothing belonging to husband, constitutional to admit into evidence since wife had not been coerced.

              5. [Frazier v. Cupp]Evidence seized from D's duffel bag in search authorized by cousin consent was admissible at trial. D assumed risk that cousin w/ whom shared bag would allow police to search it. Also important is that left bag w/ cousin, even though supposed only authorized to use 1 compartment.

              6. [Hill v. CA] Police validly seized fom D's aparmtnet incident to arrest of a third party since polic e had PC to arrest D and reasonably mistaken believed the man they arrested was he.

            2. Consent relied upon b/c no paper work and don't need PC to search

            3. Notes on Relevant Factors in Determining Validity of a consent

              1. flat assertion by police that they will search does not effectuate consent

              2. claim or show of authority: D's grandmother allowed police to search house after one announced “I have search warrant to search house” Held~ search cannot be justified on basis of consent when consent that has been given only after the official has asserted that he possesses a warrant, thereby saying occupant has no right to resist search[Bumper v. NC]

              3. Scope of consent: test is neither suspect's intent nor officer's perception but rather that of objective reasonableness-what would typical person have understood by the exchange between officer and suspect. [Fl v. Jimeno]

              4. Officers, as reasonable men, could conclude that D's consent was given-question to be asked.

              5. Mental state: voluntary consent of D in hospital w/ dislocated hip not established since decision may have been impaired by intoxication or emotional trauma.

              6. Denial of guilt will not prove that consent was not voluntary.[Florida v. Bostick] Can't use reasonable man argument to say that no reasonable man who knows he has contraband would consent to search-reasonable man test presumes innocence, not guilt.

              7. Custody: Majority concludes that failure to give D 4th warnings is not controlling significance where D had been arrested and was in custody, but consent was given while on public street..

              8. [Gentile v. US] Consent obtained during custodial interrogation at stationhouse after Miranda warnings but w/o 4th warnings?

              9. 5th amendment rights: [US v. LaGrone] prevailing view that requesting consent to search is not likely to elicit an incriminating statement, such as questions in interrogation, so don't need to give Miranda warnings.

              10. Right to counsel: Police asked to search car that had been impounded while he is in jail. He said yes. Court held D consent was ineffective since at time he had been arraigned on burglary charge and counsel had been appointed, but police asked him to consent to search w/o notifying his lawyer.

            2. Third Party Consent

            1. Woman called police about abuse. Went w/ her to boyfriend's place and open w/ her key so could arrest guy. Told police it was their apartment, not that she had moved out a while ago. Cops had neither arrest nor search warrant. Found in plain view drugs. D said girl had no right to consent since didn't live there, not on lease, didn't have access while away. Held~ remand to see if cops had reasonable belief that girlfriend had authority to consent. [IL v. Rodriguez]

                  1. determination of consent to enter must be judged against an objective standard: would the facts available to office warrant a man of reasonable custion that consenting party had authority over the premises.

                  2. ? is not if right to be free of searches has been waived, but whether right to be free of unreasonable searches has been violated.

                  3. [US v. Matlock] Prohibition against warrantless entry doesn't apply when have voluntary consent from either individual whose property is searched or from a 3rd party who possesses common authority over the premises.

                  4. “common authority” rests on mutual use of the property by persons generally having joint access or control for most purposes.

            b. Notes on Who May Consent

                  1. D's can consent to search of a separate building on their farm which he used as gym. Concluded access was est. by testimony that could have entered the building at any time, even though hadn't done so before. [US v. Duran]

                  2. No per se rule that common spousal authority extends to every square inch of property that is residence. But spouse does presumptively has authority to conset to search of all areas of homestead. Noncosenting spouse may rebut presumption by showing consenting spouse denied access.

                  3. Parent child: head of household may give consent to search of child's living quarters, but not if child has reached adulthood. A child may not give full search of parent's house. But if not unusual for child to let in visitors, mere entry of police on premises w/ consent of child not improper.

                  4. Landlord may not consent to search of tenant's premises, but can to areas of common usage. Can't consent even if LL has right of entry for purposes of inspecting or cleaning. [Chapman]

                  5. Hotel employees may not conset to search of room during period in which it has been rented by guest.

                  6. Where two roommates, general rule is that joint tenant can consent to police entry and search all commons areas and areas roommate has access.

                  7. Employer/ee: [Gillariad] consent invalid as to search of D's desk-D had high expectation of privacy concerning desk b/c worked in office secured by locked door and a desk contains confidential records. [Glover] factory owner could consent to search of items on top of work bench as not area assigned to D or used exclusively by him.

                  8. Whether employee can give valid consent depends on scope of his authority. Average employee, clerk, janitor, or other person temporarily in charge cannot give consent. If employee is manager or someone of considerable authority who is left in charge for substantial period, then that person can waive's employer's rights.

                  9. Bailor/ee: if leave car at garage for repairs, assume risk that repairmen might allow police to look inside car to determine if stolen. Might assume risk that repairmen to turn over car for further investigation at another location.

            c. Notes on Limits of Thrid Party Consent

                  1. [State v. Gonzalez-Valle] motive of D's wife in consenting to search was clearly one of spite, had no right to waive husband's protection against unreasonable searches and seizure

                  2. [Commonwealth v. Martin] while they are both living in the premises the equal authority does not lapse and revive w/ lapse and revival of amicable relations between spouses.

                  3. If D had previously instructed the 3rd not to allow search, are those instructions controlling. Held, when officers solicited consent of wife to enter for purpose of seizing property they knew husband had instructed her not to consent, and under these circumstances, were not entitled to rely upon her consent. [People v. Fry]

                  4. [people v. Reynolds] when police unaware of such instruction-distinguished.

                  5. Waiver and assumption of risk rationsales are not compelling in case where the person against whom the search is directed is present and consenting joint occupant is not. Absent 3rd party consent should not be used to waive another's rights when individual is present at search to give or withhold consent. Objecting joint occupant cannto be said to have assumed that absent 3rd party will vicariously waive his or her rights.[Matter of Welfare]

                  6. [State v. Evans] court held that wife could not consent to a serch of personal items found in case located in her hsuband's dresser drawer.

            VI. Wiretapping, Electronic Eavesdropping, the Use of Secret Agents to obtain incriminating statements and the 4th

            1. Historical Background

                1. Constitutional Permission

              1. [Olmstead v. US] (28) held that wiretapping didn't amount to search and seizure for reasons that have now been rejected by court since no entry or trespass of D and 4th protects material things to be seized. Brandise famous dissent warns of future technology- in interpreting Constitution, just don't look at text, look at policy behind it. Dissents are good source to show where exclusionary rule came from. [Not good law anymore, overrule by Katz]

              2. [Jackson] held that sealed letter intrusted to mail is protected by amendments.

                1. 1934 Federal Communication Act

              1. Taft noted in [Olmstead] that congress thru act could protect phone conversations

              2. That where 1934 FCA came into play. Section 605: “No peson not being authorized by sender shall intercept any communication or divulge or publish existence, contents, substance, of such intercepted communication to any person. Held~ covers wiretapping by state or federal officers as well as private persons [Nardone v. US]

              3. FBI held that wiretapping alone not wrong, just tapping and then divulging.

                1. WireTapping and 605

              1. [Shwartz .v TX] basing decision on Wolf, as not applying to states, to hold evidence admissible.

              2. [Benanti] barred state gathered wiretap evidence proffered in a federal prosecution. Bar silver platter doctrine.

              3. [Lee] overrule Schwartz b/c of Demise of Wolf by Mapp. Mapp imposed judicially devised exclusionary rule.

              4. Subsumed to Title III

                1. NON-Telephonic Electronic Eavesdropping

            1. by 50s, Brandeis' fears w/ developments in technology seemed to becoming true

            2. electronic eavesdropping received much more scrutiny than wiretapping. No trespass occurred in Olmstead, Goldman (where feds place detectaphone against wall of private office) or in [On lee] where statements picked up via a wired for sound by former acquitance of D_

            3. changed in '61 [Silverman] listening to incriminating statements w/in house by inserting a electronic devise, spike mike, into a party wall and maing cotact w/ a heating duct serving the house, making it a conducter of dound, amounted to illegal search and seizure. Est. that conversations could be seized w/in 4th and that search might occur w/o trespass.

            4. [Clinton] rejected state court's holding that Silverman didn't apply where spike mike was not driving into wall but stuck in it.

            5. [Katz} dispelled any confusion.

            1. Berger and Katz: The Wisdom of Constitutionality of Title III of the Crime Control Act

                1. Implications of Berger and Katz

              1. struck down NY statute calling it a blanket grant of permission to eavesdrop w/o adequate supervision or protective procedures.- statute had allowed court order only based on reasonable grounds w/o stating what crime had been or was being committed and w/o describing what conversations are to be overheard, allowed instrument placed in for 60 days, allowed continuation after 60 days w/o showing PC for continuance of eavesdrop, no retrun of warrant, place no termination on eavesdrop

              2. [Osborn] had prescise and discrimated procedures-on basis of detailed affidavit, judge ordred a tape recorder to be concealed on the “employee” for a specific meeting w/ D.

              3. [Katz] trespass doctrine defunct-gov't arg. In Olmstead and goldman not good-penetration argument can have no significance.

                1. Title III~ Overview

            1. '68-Title III is legislation that grants law enforcement officials extensive powers to conduct wiretapping and electronic surveillance.

            2. designed to regulate all “nonconsensual” electronic surveillance when none of parties overheard have consented to interceoption, except “national security” eavesdropping. Allowed states to develop own laws, must also comply though

            3. Title III only concerned w/ orders allowing interception of a wire or oral communication. “intercept” means the aural acquisition of the contents of any wire or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device.

            4. Pen registers, until recently, weren't covered.[new act now say must be court ordered but not as much protection and no exclusionary rule]

            5. Does not cover television surveillance, although some cts apply Title III by analogy

            6. Suppression of evidence not result from every failure to follow Title III. Only suppressed when provision violated was intended to play big role in the statutory scheme.

            7. Only federal district and appellate judges and state counterparts may issue surveillance orders made by AG or specifically designated Ass. AG.

            8. for emergencies, 2518(7) permits warrantless electronic surveillance for emergencies involving conspiracy activities threatening nat'l security, immediate danger of death or injury to person. But then have to go to magistrate to prove PC for later review.

            9. Each application must be in writing, under oath, disclose the identithy of the officer making application and one authorizing it, and include full and complete statement of the circumstances justifiying belief that order should be issued, including details of the offense, description of the communication facility, description of the type of communication sought to be incepted and identity of person, if known, committing the offense. Must have PC to believe that a part. Person involved in a crime will have discussion pertitnetn to that crime use a partic. Phone during a specified time period. Also must include full statements as to whether or not other investigative procedures have been tired or failed or why they will be unsecessful if tried or if too dangerous.

            10. Judge may order if determines based on facts given, normal investigative procedures are not viable alternative and that PC for 3: (1) indiv. Has committed or is about to commit crime (2) particular communications concerning offense will be obtained thru interception (3) facilities whre communication are to seized are being usedc in connection w/ offense. Also shall be executed as long as practicable. And terminates in 30 days. Can only be renewed on new showing of PC.

            11. Not after 90 days, persons named in application or those intercepted, if judge believes in interest of justice, get inventory about fact of application of order, date of entry and period of interception, fact that during the period, if communication were or were not intercepted.

            12. Patriot's statute: new rule b/c of terrorism. Police can listen to conversations if there is concern for national security.

            1. Use of Secret Agents (w/ and w/o electronic devices) to obtain incriminating statements

                1. [Lopez](63) relied on [On Lee] unsolilcited bribe to IRS agent, order to go along w/ it. Informant later met and recorded D. Held~ didn't seize words by misrepresenting himself. No eavesdropping. Gov't did not use electronic device to listen conversation it otherwise wouldn't have been able to hear. No violation of 4th under Katz since not planted by means of unlawful physical invasion.

                  1. [Rathburn](57) overhearing of a conversation on a regularly used telephone extension w/ consent of one party to conversation was not violation of §605 Federal Communication Act since each party takes risk that other party might consent to such an extension.

                1. [Lewis v. US] (66) undercover agent misrep identity. Gained access into home by saying wanted to buy drugs. Witnessed drug transaction. Testified at Court. Held~ when home coverted into commercial business to sell drugs, business is entitled to no greater sanctity than if on street.

                  1. [Gouled v. US] (21) relied on to try and distinguish. Excluded incriminating documents obtained when under federal officers orders, a business acquaintance of D obtained entry into office by pretending he was paying social visit, but in D's absence conducted search. Held~ whether entrance to home or office of a suspect be obtained by gov't agent by stealth or guise of business call, any search and seizure made secretly in absence falls w/in 4th.

                  2. Gould distinguished b/c D invited agent in to execute illegal sale of drugs.

                2. [Hoffa] (66) USSC affirmed conviction when old acquaintance turned informant and heard incriminating statements by Hoffa. Court won't protect misplaced trust-affirmed Hoffa conviction since was gov't informer. When voluntarily confides in informer.

                  1. Hoffa tried to argue no consent to enter hotel room since b/c failure to disclose role as gov't agent. Tried to argue illegal search under 4th.

                  2. 4th protects the security of home or hotel when he places himself there w/in a constitutionally protected area.

                  3. Here, Hoffa didn't rely on protection of area, but relied on confidence that friend wouldn't tell on him. Misplaced confidence. This is not protected by 4th.

                3. [Weatherford v. Bursey. ](77) B and W (gov't agent) vandalized office. W reported Bursey, but to maintain undercover status, arrested along w/ Bursey. Got separate attys. To plan strategy, Bursey atty invited W to come to meeting w/ atty. W didn't share what was said at meeting. Then called as witness at trial and talked about stuff prior to meetings. D later brought 1983 tort suit alleging W's presence deprived him of right to counsel and fair trial. Held~ no violation of constitutional rights. Right to counsel est. o per se rule that informant cannot meet w/ D's atty.

                  1. Ok for informer to attend atty-client meeting as long as doesn't reaveal-no 6th violation. Didn't refer to anything at meetings, only events prior to meetings.

                  2. No violation of right to counsel since no tainted evidence, no comm. About strategy to pros, and no purposeful intrusion by W.

                4. [US v. White] (71) Plurality opinion. Came after [Katz] helped clarify that the case overrule [Olmstead][Goldman] but not [On Lee][Hoffa]. 4th amendment does not prohibit testimony about the electronically overheard statements when informant talks w/ D and conversation overheard by agents by use of radio equipment. [Katz] does not make distinction of when informant just testifies to conversation vs. when electronically transmitted. Just fullproofs the information gained.

                  1. Ok to police to write down conversations heard while as informant and then testify regarding them w/o violating D's 4th.

                  2. No different result when electronically transmits them or records them. No violation of D's expectation of privacy. One contemplating violating law and tells another, runs risk that person will tell police.

                5. Doubts as to validity of White: [Marshall v. Barlow] Court admits that employees free to report OSHA violations. What is seen by them is not violation of reasonable expectation of privacy. Inspector not employee. W/o warrant, just like the public. No justification to enter place of business from which public is restricted and to conduct warrantless search.

            1. Entrapment

              1. large confusion as to what entrapment is. Not entrapment if police hide behind billboard and catch you speeding

              2. not entrapment if put cops in plains clothes and get him to buy drugs or even have him drop wallet and see if D steals it.

              3. Entrapment is when police coerce you to do crime. It is subjective test of something that is shocking? Courts must look to predisposition of D- did cops just give D an opportunity to do a crime he was already predisposed to doing?

              4. Would be entrapment if get police to dress as a junkie and ask someone on street where he can buy drugs. Person repeated says to junkie that he has no idea where to buy drugs. Then finally after being pestered enough, person says “maybe you can buy drugs at that red house down the street”. Person would have valid entrapment defense.

              5. If D raises entrapment defense, basically raises questions as to his character or predisposition. Evidence that wouldn't be allowed under FRE 401, can now be introduced b/c when claim entrapment say that have no predisposition to using drugs. Therefore, Prosecution can enter evidence as to you prior drug use.

            1. Police Interrogation and Confessions- 5th and 6th amendment protections

            1. Different Perspectives

              1. Police Interrogation-a practical necessity: law and order guy. Says nothing wrong w/ interrogation by police. Total right to counsel from get go. Just can't be compelled to be witness against yourself. Constitution bars beatings, but not questioning. If didn't have interrogations, a lot of crimes would go unsolved.

              2. Gatehouse and Mansion-equal justice: the mansion analogy is made to the courtroom where everyone is polite, cordial, and by the rules. Yet, must pass thru the gatehouse, the jail, to get the mansion. The gatehouse isn't nice and cordial- they may beat and abuse you and then bring you into the mansion where they are allowed to introduce the evidence in a polite way, but what is the fruit of a unpleasant interrogation. Kamisar says this is how the history of criminal justice worked for a long time.

            2. Historical Background

                    1. Interests protected by due process “voluntariness” test for admitting confessions

            a.18th and 19th century- first time rules governing admissibility of confessions. Only worried about trustworthiness of evidence.

              1. Since 1940s—rule that confession was admissible as long as it was “voluntary” and not “involuntary” or “coerced”. Therefore, admissible as long as free from influence which made it untrustworthy or “probably untrue”

                  1. voluntary test has been criticized b/c it has a fuzzy meaning. But still in backdrop today.

                  2. Test deals w/ protection provided by 5th- freedom from incriminating oneself.

              2. Early 1960s, due process or “involuntary” test had 3 underlying goals which barred confessions:

                1. that were of doubtful reliability b/c of police methods used to obtain them

                  1. exclude confession under due process b/c “untrustworthy”- trying to protect integrity of fact finding process. [Brown v. Ms] excluded confession when police beat it out of D w/ belt buckles.

                  2. [Aschcroft v. Tn] excluded confession where confession obtained after 36 hours of interrogation. Action raised presumption of “coercion”

                  3. court really concerned less w/ reliability than w/ police abuse.

                  4. [Ashcroft] important b/c shows court find coercive nature in interrogations.

                  5. Use or threatened use of physical violence or protracted interrogation renders any confessions inadmissible per se.

                2. which were produced by offensive methods even though reliability not in question

                  1. [Watts v. Id] reversed 3 convictions resting on coerced confessions even though external evidence corroborated confessions, thereby making confessions inherently believable. Held~ due process clause bars police procedures which violate notions of mode of prosecuting crime.

                  2. [Rochin] even though might be true, offend notion of fair play.

                  3. [Spanno] ban on involuntary confessions turns not only on reliability but on notion police must follow law while enforcing it.

                  4. Left that “police methods” and “trustworthiness” standards start to overlap. Continued use of such methods create risk other subjects would falsely confess.

                3. which were involuntary in fact (obtained by a drugged person), even though confession trustworthy and not product of any conscious police wrongdoing.

                  1. [Townsend v. Sain] excluding confession obtain from one give a drug w/ properties of truth serum even though police were unaware of effect and had engaged in no conscious wrongdoing and confessions were apparently reliable.

                4. Pre-miranda, examples of what was “involuntary” confessions

                  1. stripping off D's clothes and keeping him naked for several hours

                  2. threatening financial aid would be cut off to children if D failed to cooperate w/ police

                  3. after D denied guilt, pretending to bring in sick wife for questioning

                  4. repeatingly denying D to call anyone until gave police statement

                  5. removing D to another place to thwart others helping D get out of jail or contact him.

                  6. Bringing in psychiatrist good at hypnosis under guise of general practitioner b/c D needed medical attention and then psych. Getting confession out of him.

                  7. Using D's friend, a police officer, to lie and say that job was in jeopardy b/c D had called him.

              1. Shortcomings of Voluntary Test

              1. clear over time that “voluntary”, coercion tests were not very helpful.

              2. [Miller] voluntary test too ambiguous, fact specific, and useless.

              3. Questions over “psychological” coercion very hard to apply.

              4. Had swearing matches over what happenend [Messiah and Miranda didn't help this]

              5. Lead to inability for USSC to articulate a clear and predictable definition of “voluntary” Eventually lead to 64 decisions [Messiah, Escabedo] where supposedly got bright line rules.

              6. Voluntary test still important: applies when police question a suspect not in custody, when police question suspect who waives his rights and agrees to talk, but denies any involvement in crime.

              1. McNabb-Mallory Rule: Supervisory Authority over FED. Criminal Justice vs. 14th DPC

              1. [McNabb v. US] supervisory rules requiring production of an arrested person before a commissioner without “unnecessary delay” and excluding evidence obtained in default of statutory obligation. standards of federal criminal justice are not satisfied merely by observance of minimalistic historical safeguards. Can formulate rules of evidence over administration of federal criminal justice under exercise of supervisory authority. Can do this even though limited power to upset state convictions to enforcement of violations of due process.

              2. Otherwise voluntary confession was not rendered inadmissible in a state prosecution b/c elicited during prolonged and illegal detention, but such a confession had to excluded from federal prosecutions.

              3. [Mallory v. US](57) extended dely to take to nearest available committing officer, which resulted in 7 hour detention and confession, excluded confession. Can't bring in and interrogate just so know who to bring in front of magistrate to demonstrate PC.

              4. Rule never applied via 14th. But court closed in on state confession problem thru right to counsel and privilege against self incrimination. Ended going further.

              1. Right to Counsel and Analogy to Accusatorial Adversary Trial

            1. [Crooker](58) D law student who claimed to know right to remain silent. Convicted of murder. Claimed violation of DPC b/c of persistent interrogation and denial of request to contact lawyer. Claimed that confession, though freely made, should be excluded. Held~ no violation of DPC b/c would restrict law enforcement.

            2. [Cicenia v. La Gay](58) D requested to see lawyer, lawyer at stationhouse and was refused to see his client. Not educated. USSC affirmed conviction.

            3. [Spano v. NY](59) Held~ once person is formally charged by indictment or information, constitutional right to counsel has begun- at least right to counsel that D himself has retained. D was already under indictment when surrendered to authorities. Found confession inadmissible based on “coerced confession” grounds.

              1. Messiah and Escabedo: Court closes on “confession problem”

            1. [US v. Messiah](64) already indicted for drug violations and had retained atty. Released on bail. Co-D, turned informant, discussed case w/ Messiah in car while it was being recorded, and Messiah made damaging statements. Held~ petitioner denied basic protections of right to counsel when there was used against him at trial evidence of incriminating words, which were illicited from him after he was indicted and in absence of counsel.

                1. court said that could continue investigating D and cohorts, just that incriminating statements illicited from him after indictment w/ absence of counsel could not be introduced at trial.

                2. Change from voluntary test-now finds rights under 6th amendment.

                3. Miranda will use both 5th and 6th

                4. Lead to right to counsel following indictment when there is a lineup. Function of atty is to ensure fairness.

                5. Distinguishes [Hoffa, On lee] since those decisions based on 4th, this based on 6th.

                6. Compare w/ [Weatherford v. Bursey] if atty had been there, atty would have done no good. But under [Weatherford] evidence is admitted.

                7. [Brewer v. Williams] some feel courts, like in [Messiah] have gone too far. Cops gave Christian burial speech, deemed confession as to where body was inadmissible b/c absence of counsel.

                8. [] leads to case where ok to put gov't agent into jail and listen to see if D incriminates himself. Can't elicit info from him, but if admits to crime, can testify against him even though indicted and no counsel present.

            1. [Escobedo v. Il] (64) Co-D brought in and indicted and pointed to Escobedo as the trigger man. D had been brought in and released when made no statement and released on HC filed by lawyer. Again arrested and police told D that Co-D had pointed to him as trigger man. D asked for atty. Denied. Police also wouldn't let atty talk to him. Police set up confrontation between Co-D and D, D implicated himself when denied that he was trigger man.Held~even though not indicted at this point, confession surpressed.

              1. Held~ where investigation is no longer a general inquiry into unsolved crime, but focuses on 1 person, then suspect taken into custody and interrogated by police that leads to incriminating statements, when suspect has requested and been denied oppty to talk to lawyer and there has been no warning of constitutional right to remain silent, accused has then been denied right to counsel under 6th and as to states under 14th. No statement elicited by police during interrogation can be used against him at trial.

              2. Very fuzzy test. Goes contra of need of indictment for a violation of 6th under [Messiah]

              3. Subsumed by Miranda in (66).

              1. Late arrival on scene: privilege against self-incrimination

                  1. Messiah and Escabedo relied on 6th right to counsel

                  2. critics were afraid that too expansive-might even threaten volunteered statements, so critics turned to privilege against self-incrimination less restrictive.

                  3. [Mallory v. Hogan] (64) held that confession's admissibility is tested under standard used in [Bram] that in criminal trials whenever a question arises whether a confession is imcopetent b/c not voluntary the issue controlled by self-incrimination portion of 5th.

                  4. Reason for why 5th excluded as basis for reasoning is that courts read the compulsion to testify meant legal compulsion- at station house suspect not seen as being compelled to be witness against himself b/c not threatened w/ perjury or contempt for not testifying.

            1. Miranda Revolution

            1. [Miranda v. Arizona] (66) Held~ The prosecution may not use statements, whether inculpatory or exculpatory, stemming from custodial interrogation of the defendant unless it demonstrates the use of procedural safeguards effective to secure the privilege against self-incrimination.

                        1. “custodial interrogation”—questioning initiated by law enforcement officers after a person has been taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom of action in any significant way. Court makes clear that interrogations are inherently coercive.

                        2. “procedural safeguards”—prior to questioning, D warned of the right to remain silent, that any statement he does make may be used as evidence against him, that he has a right to the presence of an attorney at the interrogation , either retained or appointed.

                        3. D may waive his rights, as long is made voluntarily, knowingly, and intelliegently.

                        4. if waives, D can in the process ask to speak to an attorney and the interrogation must stop until attorney present. Or if D indicates that he does not wish to be interrogated, the police may not question him. If don't provide w/ atty ok as long as don't question D. don't have to have station house lawyer.

                        5. silence or failure to ask for attorney does not constitute waiver. Valid waiver not presumed simply from fact that a confession eventually was obtained.

                        6. if questioning continues, gov't has heavy burden of showing that waiver against self-incrimination and right to atty was knowing and intelligently made.

                        7. Warnings are absolute prerequisite to interrogation. Even if think or person says know rights, must finish reading the warnings.

                        8. If D indicates desire to remain silent, but has atty present, may be some circumstances in which further questioning may be permissible.

                        9. When D in custody on PC, police may seek out evidence in field to be used in trial against him. May include inquiry of persons not under restraint. General on the scene questioning for fact finding is not affected by holding.

                        10. Confessions admissible if freely given and voluntarily given w/o any compelling influences. No requirement for police to stop a person who enters station and states that wishes to confess crime or person who calls police to offer confession or any other statement he wishes to make. Volunteered statements not barred by 5th and admissibility not affected by Miranda holding.

                        11. Court argues that holding is Constitutionally based on 5th amendment. But does give offer to police that don't have to use these warnings per se if they can come up with procedural safeguards that are just as effective.

                        12. Court expressly held that mirands and self-incrimination clause applicable to state interrogations at police station

            1. Title II: Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968-congress' attempt to repeal Miranda

                    1. W/ conservative swing in 68, Republican congress and pres. Want to repeal Miranda and McNabb-Mallory rule in federal prosecutions under Title II of the Crime Control Act. Congress thinks it can do this since the rules made under Miranda and Mallory, as they see it, were not Constitutionally based and could be overrided by act of Congress.

                    2. § 3501 argues admissible if “voluntarily” given-decision to be made by judge.

            (a) takes some of the requirements of Miranda and makes them factors to look at- to see if statement was voluntarily given

                1. time elapsing between arrest and arraignment

                2. if he knew what he was charged w/ or nature of crime at the time of the confession

                3. if D knew of the right to remain silent and that if did talk any statement made could be used against him

                4. whether if prior to questioning advised of a right to counsel

                5. whether an attorney w/ him when questioned or when gave confession

                6. presence or absence of any factors is not conclusive on issue of voluntariness.

            (b) doesn't bar voluntary confessions

            © Confession made not necessarily inadmissible solely on the fact that D in custody and not brought to commissioner. If confession found by trial judge to be voluntary and made w/in 6 hours of being in detention. The time limitation of this section doesn't apply when there is a delay in bringing person before such commissioner b/c of reasonable considerations b/c of means of transportations and distance to be traveled.

            3. for some reason not many fights under 3501. Statute has been avoided by many lower courts.

            4. [Dickerson] (99 4th Cir) upheld constitutionally of 3501 and ruled that it had overturned Miranda. But then in (2000) court overruled Dickerson and found that Miranda was constitutionally based.

            1. Implications of [Tucker][Quarles][Elstad] -rethinking Miranda

            1. [Michigan v. Tucker] (74) Questioning occurred before Miranda was decided but defendant trial took place afterwards. Retroactivity issue. Held~ Miranda affects those cases in which the trial began after the date of that decision. court held that statements were admissible. But RENQUIST also deemed that warnings were not themselves “rights protected by the Constitution” but only “prophylactic standards” designed to safeguard or provide practical reinforcement for privilege against self-incirmination. Here police didn't deprive of right to privilege against self-incrimination only didn't provide procedural safeguards.

            2. [NY v. Quarles];. Quarles recognized a “public safety exception to the Miranda warnings and thus held both the suspect's statement “the gun is over there” and the gun itself admissible. Elstad ruled that the fact police had earlier obtained a statement from in violation of Miranda rights (when questioned at home) didn't bar admission of subsequent confession (at stationhouse) when the police did read Miranda right.

            3. [Oregon v. Elstad] Court relied heavily on distinction between statements actually coerced an those obtained merely in violaion of Miranda's procedural safeguards. Elstad said that failure to give Miranda not a violation of 5th itself. Held~ a subsequent reading of Miranda to suspect who has given a voluntary but unwarned statement ordinarily should suffice to remove conditions that precluded admission of earlier statement.

            4. [US v. Dickerson] Held that pre-Miranda due process voluntariness test set forth in 3501 rather than Miranda case, governs the admissibility of confessions in federal courts. Therefore, wrongful suppression of statement under Miranda. Upheld constitutionality of 3501.-should gov'n admissibility of statements in federal courts.

            1. After Miranda

            1. impeachment cases: [Harris v. NY] held that statements preceded by defective warnings and thus inadmissible to establish the prosecutions case in chief, could nevertheless be used to impeach D's credibility if he chose to take the stand in his own defense.

            (a) [Or v. Hass] Even though D asserted rights after being read Miranda rights, police continued refused to honor right to atty and kept questioning him. Held~ here too statements could be used for impeachment purposes.

            (b) result is that police have nothing to lose but to violate the Miranda rulings since the later incriminating statements may still be used to some effect.

            2. [Mi v. Mosely] under certain circumstances if D asserts right to silence, police must stop. But police may try again and succeed at a later interrogation. At second session, must give warnings again.

            3. “custody” [Or v. Mathiason] even police station questioning designed to produce incriminating statements is not necessarily “custodial interrogation” When suspect goes down on his own to station house after officer requested that he meet him there at convience. [Beheler] still not in custody when accompanied by officer since D was said to have voluntarily agreed to accompany the police. Told not under arrest. No Miranda given but agreed to talk about murder.

            4. [Brown v. Il] Miranda is not cure all. Rejected contention that giving of the warnings should purge the taint of any preceding illegal arrest. Here, police enter house illegally and find evidence. Later arrested and give Miranda. Evidence found inside house b/c fruit of poisonous tree. Not effected by Miranda warning.

            5. interrogation: [RI v Innis] given broad definition of interrogation.

            6. [Edwards v. Arizona] added bright line rule to Miranda. Held~ when a suspect asserts right to counsel (as opposed to right to remain silent) the police cannot try again. Here, a suspect cannot be questioned anew until counsel has been made available to him, unless he intiates further communication, exchanges, or conversations w/ police.

            7. exploting a criminal's ignorance or stupidity; intelligent waivers vs. wise ones

            (a) [State v. McKnight] ok to exploit criminal's ignorance or stupidity in detectional process. If D has been given Miranda warnings, if coercion of custodial interrogation stopped, his waiver no less voluntary and knowing and intelligent b/c misconceived the inculpatory thrust of fact he admitted to, or b./c he thought that what he said could not be used against him b/c it was only oral or b/c he had fingers crossed, or b/c he could have used lawyer.

            (b) intelligence in this context not equated w/ wisdom

            © adequacy of warnings [Duckworth v. Eagan] even though statements were exactly words used in Miranda. D signed waiver form but denied any involvement in crime. Later interrogated him, signed a different waiver form and confessed. Held~initial warnings given adequate b/c touched all of the bases required by Miranda.

            8. right to be made aware of subject matter of questioning: [Co v. Spring] (87) held that a suspect's awareness of all possible subjects of questioning in advance of interrogation is not relevant to determining whether the suspect voluntarily, knowingly, and intelligently waived 5th. Informant told police of stolen firearms and homicide. First, arrested during undercover purchase, read Miranda and D signed waiver. First asked ?s regarding the sales and then asked if ever shot anyone. D admitted shooting a guy once. Then later in jail, read Miranda rights, again signed waiver form and then informed that police wanted to ? regarding the murder. Confessed and convicted of murder. All admissible. Held~ the failure to inform D of subject matter of interrogation could not affect decision to waive 5th privilege.

            9. Focus test of [Escobedo] rejcted in [Beckwith v. US] IRS agents met w/ D in home. Not read full Miranda. Argued b/c had become focus of investigation should have been given full Miranda since confrontation put him under psy constraints. Held~ no not in same custodial situation as Miranda.where inherently coercive.

            10. [Stansbury v. Ca] Officer's subjective view concering whether person is being interrogated is irrelevant to whether a person is in custody. Unless communicated to person, unarticulated suspicions do not affect the Miranda inquiry.

            11. custodial interrogation: most hold that absent special circumstances (such as arresting a suspect at gunpoint or forcibly subduing him) police questioning on the street in a public place or in a person's home or office is not “custodial”.

            (a) [Orozco v. Tx] D was ? in bedroom by 4 cops at 4:00, circumstances that produced a potentiality for compulsion equivalent to station interrogation.

            (b) [NY v. Quarles] defendant in custody when ? in supermarket minutes after arrest at gunpoint surrounded by 4 cops, frisked and cuffed, but public safety exception applied.

            © [US v. Mesa] after shooting, barricaded himself in motel room. Talking w/ negotiator and asking ? at same time. Made incriminating statements over phone. At no time given Miranda. Held~ statements admissible, only 1 judge said not interrogation.

            (d) [Mn v. Murphy] parolee arranged to meet w/ officer in office. In response to ? made incriminating statements. Although officer had reason to believe answers might be incriminating. D held not to be in custody. D not physically restrained and could have left.

            (e) [Or v. Mathaison] D agreed to meet police at station. When arrived told not under arrest. Confessed to burglary. Held~ not in custodial interrogation.

            (f) [Burkemeyer v McCarty] Roadside questioning of motorist detained pursuant to routine traffic stop does not amount to custodial interrogation. In Terry stop, detainee is not obliged to respond. If don't give police PC, police must release. At time of stop, police determined to take D in for traffic violation. “a police man unarticulated plan has no bearing on ? of whether D was “in suspect” at time; the only relevant ? is how a reasonable man in suspect's position would have understood situation

            (g) [RI v. Innis] Miranda case: Question is the D under “interrogation?” Clear he is in custody, but is the “handicap speech” an interrogation? Suspect's incriminating response must be shown as the product of words or actions on the part of the police that they should have known were reasonably likely to elicit an incriminating response. D arrested for burglary and robbery. Read Miranda. D asked to speak w/ atty. In route to station, cops said “god forbid one of handicap children finds weapon”. D then said would reveal. Was D interrogated? No. Police cannot be held accountable for unforeseeable results of words or actions. 1st prong not met-wasn't expressly questioned. 2nd can't be said that police should've known conversation was reasonably likely to elicit incriminating response. Nothing in record to indicate that police knew conscious suspectible to handicaps.

                  1. any knowledge that police may have had concerning unusual suspectibility to particular form of persuasion might be an important factor.

                  2. No public safety exception since [Quarles] had not been decided yet.

            (h) [Il v. perkins] Miranda case. D already in jail for a crime, now suspected for murder. Miranda warnings not required when suspect is unaware that he is speaking to officer and gives voluntary statement. Put undercover agent in cellblock w/ D. D incarcerated to charges not related w/ murder. Undercover, when planning escape, asked if D ever did anyone. D gave details of murder.Held~ statements admissible even though not given Miranda. Similar to misplaced confidence. No coercive interrogation.

            (i) [Az v Mauro] No custodial interrogation for police to give in to incessant request of D's wife, another suspect, to speak w/ D who was being held in room w/ police officer there and who placed a tape recorder in plain sight of desk. D given Miranda warnings and asserted right to counsel. Wife not sent in to get incriminating statements. Possibility or hope by police to get statements doesn't mean under custodial interrogation.

            (j) [PA v. Muniz] D pulled over for 7 booking ?s. Not advised of his Miranda warnings and taped. Delivery and content of ? were incriminating. During sobriety tests made more incriminating statements. Refused Breath test. Given Miranda. Held~ both audio and video held admissible. Booking ? ok reasonably related to administrative concerns, sixth b-day question was not b/c required testimonial response. Slurring speech and lack of muscular coordination are nontestimonial components. Incrim statements during sobriety test not prompted by interrogation under Miranda.

            1. Scope of Second-level Miranda safeguards-procedures after D asserts rights; Difference between invoking right to remain silent and right to counsel

                    1. [Mi v. Mosely] D given Miranda as robbery suspect. Didn't request atty and didn't want to talk. Taken to cell and 2 hours later questioned about unrelated murder after given 2nd Miranda. Waived and made incriminating statements. Held~ incriminating statements admissible. Right to not talk about robbery honored. Resumed questioning after “significant period of time, fresh warnings and restricted ?s to different subject”

                    2. [Edwards v. Az] Held that once D asks for atty, he may not be questioned again unitl counsel has been made available to him unless he initates further communication, exchanges, or conversations w/ cops.

                    3. [Az v. Roberson] held once D asserts right to counsel the police cannot initate interrogation about crimes other than the one for which the suspect has invoked right to counsel. When ask for counsel the problem of not being able to deal w/ pressure of custodial interrogation does not disappear by being asked about a different crime.

                    4. [Minnick v. MS] (90) Escaped prison and killed people in CA. Asserted right to counsel w/ FBI. When MS sheriff showed up told that he must talk w/ him and couldn't refuse him. Given Miranda but made incriminating statements. Held~ bars police-initiated interrogation unless the accused has counsel w/ him at time of questioning. When counsel is requested, interrogation must cease and officials may not reinitate interrogation w/o counsel present, whether or not the accused has consulted w/ atty.

            H. If Suspect has not requested lawyer but unknown to him somebody else has retained one for him, does failure to inform D about lawyer and that lawyer is trying to see him negate the waiver of Miranda rights. -NO

                1. [Morgan v. Burbine] (86) D given Miranda,signed waiver forms and made incriminating statements. Didn't know sister had retained lawyer for him. Lawyer lied to by police. Police didn't' inform D that had lawyer or that lawyer requested to see him. Held~ statements admissible since no violation of Miranda, 6th or 14th.

                        1. D can waive rights conveyed in warnings provided waiver is made voluntarily, knowingly and intelligently. Must be voluntary and free from coercion. Must have been made w/ full awareness both of nature of right and consequences of abandoning rights. This was done here.

                        2. Info about lawyer would have been helpful but once determined decision to abandon rights were uncoerced, analysis complete and waiver is valid.

                        3. State of mind of police, whether failing to inform D was intentional or inadvertent, does not have bearing on validilty of waiver. State of mind of police is irrelevant. Police don't have to keep D aware of legal representation.

                        4. 6th amendment no use since interrogation and incriminating statements took place before intiation of adversarial judicial proceedings. [Escobedo] doesn't help b/c based on 5th amendment.—right to remain silent; privilege against self-incirmination. 6th becomes applicable only when gov't role shirfts from investigatory to accusation.

                        5. 14th no avail-challenged conduct falls short of misbehavior that so shocks sensilbilities of civilized society as to warrant a federal intrusion into criminal processes of States.

            I. Miranda v. prohibition against use of involuntary or compelled statements and 4th's exclusionary rule

            1. [Withrow v. Williams](93) Stone v. Powell holding does not extend to prisoner's claim that conviction rests on statements obtained in violation of Miranda. D not given Miranda and made incriminating statements. State courts refused to suppress.

            1. [Stone v. Powell] held~ when a state has given full and fair chance to litigate a 4th claim, federal habeas review is not available to a state prisoner alleging conviction rests on evidence obtained thru uconstitutional search or seizure.

            2. [Stone] has not been applied to many areas:

              1. [Jackson v. VA] didn't apply Stone to bar habeas consideration of 14th amendment due process claim of insufficient evidence to support a state conviction. Central to guilt/innocence-as opposed to when state court gets evidence not protected by exclusionary rule and no burden on federal courts.

              2. [Rose v. Mitchell] didn't apply stone to bar habeas review of equal protection claim of racial discrimination in selecting grand jury foreman.

              3. [Kimmelman v. Morrison] didn't apply Stone to bar habeas review of certain claims of ineffective assistance of counsel under 6th.

            1. Mapp rule, the application of exclusionary rule to states, is not a personal Constitutional right. Miranda vs. Mapp, Miranda safeguards a fundamental trial right, 5th protection against self-incrimination.

            2. If Stone applied to Miranda, D could still get to federal court under 14th DPC claiming that conviction rested on involuntary confession looking to the totality of circumstances test. Therefore, burden of fed courts wouldn't change.

            J. How Police even w/ Miranda Get D to confess

            1. Gives rights, asks D if understands, and gets him to initial by each one

            2. Gets another signature affirming D understands rights

            3. Police tell D that they will honor rights if invokes, but also says if does that it will make matters worse for D b/c if don't talk to police, prevents him from writing up a lesser charge b/c D doesn't get to tell his side of the story.

            4. Lies by saying that evidence is overwhelming and that wants to make sure before writes up charge that he doesn't make a mistake, does D want to tell his side of story.

            5. D cautioniouly indicates willingness to talk-agress w/ suggestion by cop that victim “came at him”

            6. D wants to talk but before he does, cops makes sure signs all effective waivers, right to remain silent and to talk w/o counsel present

            7. D signs and tells his story

            IX. Revisiting the Due Process-Voluntary Test

            A. Importance of Voluntary Test

            1. most suspects waive their rights and submit to police questioning

            2. Now test becomes: is it admissible on the basis of voluntariness test

            (a) important if suspect not in custody and are questioned by police

            (b) important if suspect in a custody-like situation are questioned or threatened by private citizens

            3. Involuntary statements, unlike confessions made in violation of Miranda, may not be used at trial, not even for impeachment purposes

            B. Trickery or Deception: What can be used before in custody?

            1. generally, if just in investigation period, police are ok to use police trickery

            (a) ok to call D and trick him to move incriminating evidence outside home

            (b) ok to tell suspect that co-D has confessed to try to get him to confess

            2. Not ok to use trickery to try to get D to waive his rights

                  1. cannot read Miranda rights in Spanish if D cannot understand Spanish just so will waive rights

                  2. cannot tell D so sign piece of paper that waives rights when telling D that paper is just routine paper work

                  3. Exam hypo: D suspected of killing wife. Police have arrest warrant but don't execute it. D doesn't know of arrest warrant. Dress cop up as wife and have her confront D when cops hiding in the bushes. D opens door as says, “It can't be you . . . I killed you!” This is admissible since in Plain view/earshot and not in custody. Incriminating statements are not in violation of Miranda. Statements voluntarily given, even though there is police trickery.

                  4. Exam hypo: D suspected of killing someone. Invited down to station. Suspect comes down voluntarily. Cops leave a false confession that is supposedly written by co-D implicating suspect. Cops do have arrest warrant but haven't executed it and D doesn't know of it. Therefore, even though physically in stationhouse, not in custody. Therefore, cops do not have to read him Miranda. D is free to leave at any time. His incriminating statement will be deemed voluntary even though there is police trickery.

            C. What trickery can be used after D has waived his rights?

            1. after D waives rights, ok for cop to display sympathy to try to get D to talk- ok to use Mutt and Jeff act

            2. even after Miranda, most trickery ok. Appellate courts hold mainly that confession admissible even when it was obtained by trickery and deceit, provided that trickery doesn't shock the conscience or apt to elicit a false confession.

            3. ok to say co-D implicated him

            4. ok to sympathize and suggest victim came at him or suggest that D is just sick and needs help

            5. lower ct--under involuntary test, police trickery is just one of factors to be used in totality of circumstances.

            6. [Miller v. Fenton] admission deemed voluntary when waived Miranda rights. Police used physcological ploys to get D to purge his guilt, collapsed after confession and went into state of shock. This deemed ok since confession still voluntary.

            7. ok to not tell D that lawyer is waiting outside

            D. Massiah v. Miranda

            1. revival of Massiah in [Brewer v. William 1]

            2. Massiah test is narrower. Miranda test is broader since don't have to be intentionally eliciting incriminating statements. W/ Massiah, need deliberate ellicting, not just passive.

            3. [Massiah] holds that once “indicted” and D asserts his right to counsel, police must cease interrogation and must not reinitiate questioning w/o presence of atty, unless D initiates conversations himself.

            4. [Brewer v. Williams] Once adversary proceedings have commenced against individual, he has a right to legal representation when gov't interrogates him. Mental patient killed little girl. Brought into custody, told by his two attys in different cities not to talk to cops until gets back to DM and sees his other atty. Before transported by police to DM, D has not been indicted. There was an arrest warrant, he was in custody, he had been given Miranda, and judge had determined enough PC. Cops promised to atty not to interrogate while in route, but while in route cop gave Christian burial speech knowing that D was very religious and mental patient. Held~ confession inadmissible. Although no direct questioning, this was interrogation in violation of right to counsel. Even though not indicted, D had been to initial hearing which means that judicial proceedings have been initiated against him. D had expressed right to counsel and cop deliberately made speech knowing that it might elicit incriminating statements. Speech tantamount to interrogation. D here didn't waive right to counsel.

            E. Passive v. Active Secret agents

                1. [US v. Henry] (80) Massiah case: FBI told informant not to question D about crime when planted as cell mate. Held~ incriminating statements were result of conduct by police when informant was not just a passive listener but had “stimulated” conversation which led to incriminating statements. B/c D had been indicted and given counsel, by intentionally creating environment likely to induce D's incriminating statements w/o assistance of counsel, there was violation of 6th amendment

              1. doesn't prohibit gov't from planting a passive cellmate once adversary proceedings have begun

              2. line between passive and active agents might be hard to draw

                1. [Kuhlman v. Wilson] (86) Place informant in cellblock after D is arraigned-purpose is to get indentities of co-D. Informant didn't questioned him, just listened and commented “don't sound too good for you”. After D told cellmate that he did kill dispatches, informant told police. Held~ statements admissible under Massiah. D must demonstrate informant took some action, beyond merely listening that was designed to elicit incriminating remarks. At no time did informant ask any questions- just listened to unsolicited statements. Here, no showing of informant deliberately eliciting statements.

            X. Fruit of the Poisonous Tree

            A. Genesis of Rule; doctrine of attenuation

              1. harder cases is when the evidence is secondary or derivative in nature

            (a) a confession obtained after illegal arrest

            (b) physical evidence is located after an illegally obtained confession

              1. necessary to determine if derivative evidence is `tainted” by prior constitutional or other violation

              2. [Silverthorn v. US] gov't couldn't use information obtained during illegal search to subpoena very documents illegally viewed. HOLMES pointed out that if knowledge from independent source would lead to evidence may be able to view it.

              3. [Nardone] refused to permit prosecution to avoid an inquiry into its use of information gained by illegal wiretapping.

              4. attenuation doctrine: even where challenged evidence did not have independent source, it might still be admissible. Such a connection between info obtained and illicit wire tapping may be so attenuated as to dissipate the taint.

              5. [US v. Calandra] a witness cannot refuse to answer grand jury question on ground that they are based on evidence obtained from earlier illegal search.

            B. Verbal evidence as “fruit of illegal search and seizure”

            1. [Wong Sun v. US] Illegal entry into Toy's home lead to Toy statement that incriminated Yee. Then went to Yee who turned over drugs and implicated Wong Sun. Held~ that both Toy's statement which lead to drugs taken from Yee excluded as “fruits” of unlawful entry into Toy's home. But although Wong Sun unlawfully arrested, confession was not fruit of illegal arrest. Had been released and returned voluntarily several days later to make confession. Illegal arrest too attenuated to taint confession.

            (a) here, drugs taken from Yee came by exploitation of illegality (the lawless search and seizure of Toy) and cannot be used against Toy.

            1. traditionally only physical evidence could be illegal fruit

            2. ask: whether did evidence come by exploitation of illegality or by means distinguishable to be purged of taint?

            C. Independent source; inevitable discovery

            1. a violation of a person's rights should not put him beyond the law's reach if his guilt can be est. by evidence unconnected w/ or “untainted” by violation

            2. inevitable discovery: whether evidence in fact obtained illegally would inevitably or eventually or probably have been discovered lawfully. Might not be able to use it if police in bad faith

            3. independent source: whether the police actually acquired certain evidence by reliance upon an untainted source

            D. Confession as fruit of an illegal search

            1. [Brown v. Illinois] held that Miranda warnings did not purge the taint of the prior illegal arrest when 1st statement separated by illegal arrest less than 1 hour later. No intervening event of significance. Impropriety of arrest was obvious. Prosectution has burden. Will lead to purposeful violations of 4th hoping Miranda will cure them so admissible at trial. Factors to look at:

              1. if Miranda warnings were given

              2. temporal proximity of arrest and confession

              3. intervening circumstances

              4. purpose and flagrancy of official misconduct

              5. volutariness of statement—threshold issue

            1. [Dunaway v. NY] Miranda itself are insufficient to attenuate the taint of unconstitutional arrest; not cure-all. Arrested w/o PC hoping something would come out. D confessed w/o any intervening event of significance.

            2. [Taylor v. Alabama] D's confession still fruit of illegal arrest even though six hours had elapsed between illegal arrest and confession, petitioner was advised of his rights 3 times and was allowed to visit w/ family before confessed.

            3. [Rawlings v. Ky] D's admission that drugs in friends' purse was his was admissible and not the fruit of an illegal detention. Even if illegal detention, his admission was a spontaneous reaction to discovery of drugs.

            E. Identification of a person as fruit of illegal arrest

            1. [US v. Crews] Court refused to suppress victims in court ID despite illegal arrest. Based on description, Crews illegally taken into custody, photo and released. Picked out of photos as robber. In line-up, again identified. Held~ victim's in-court identification is admissible. In court id does not come from exploitation of violation of 4th.

              1. D himself is not a suppressible fruit. Illegal arrest itself doesn't bar subsequent prosecution. Illegality of detention can't deprive gov't of opportunity to prove guilt thru intro of evidence wholly untainted by police misconduct.

              2. Illegal arrest had nothing to do w/ ID. V had picture after robbery, described it and retrieved info when made in-court ID.

            F. confession as fruit of a Payton violation

                1. [NY v. Harris] where police have PC to arrest suspect, the exclusionary rule doesn't bar the use of statement by suspect outside his home even the statement is obtained after an in-house arrest in violation of Payton.

            (a) Payton—4th amendment prohibits police from effecting a warrantless entry into D's home in order to make a routine felony arrest. Payton designed to protect home.

            (b) b/c had PC to arrest D, he was not unlawfully in custody when removed to station house.

            © same if police had arrested Harris on door step, illegally entered home to search for evidence and later interrogated Harris at station house.

            (d) also same if police had made a warrantless entry into D's home, not found him there, but arrested him on street when returned. A later statement made by him after proper warnings would be admissible.

            G. a search warrant as fruit of illegal entry and occupation of premises

            1. ok if administrative delay—items not observed during illegal entry and first discovered by agent under valid search warrant held admissible. Valid search warrant was means “sufficiently distinguishable” to purge the evidence of any taint arising from entry

            2. [Murray v. US] evidence observed by police during illegal entry of premises need not be excluded if such evidence is subsequently discovered during execution of valid search warrant sought and issued on basis of info wholly unconnected to prior entry.

            H. Confession obtained in violation of Miranda

            1. [OR v. Elstad] Unwarned admission must be suppressed, but admissibility of any subsequent statement should turn solely on if D made them knowingly and voluntarily. Confession obtained at stationhouse was not obtained by inherently coercive method. D's signed confession was deemed voluntary and rendered admissible even though there was a prior remark made in response to questioning w/o benefit of Miranda warnings.



                1. Don't understand the exact holding of [Horton v. California]?

                2. State v. Ruscoe - ok to search TV w/o serial numbers when move them looking for items in search warrant, how can this be squared w/ Scalia's opinion that too intrusive search to move the stereo [AZ v. Hicks]?—Hicks distinguished since Ruscoe cops had PC to search for evidence and had reason to look behind the stereo. Therefore, scratched out serial number were in plain view. W/ Hicks, cops had no PC to look behind stereos. Just thought weird stereos in shitty home.


            1 Yes, money found in envelope are admissible. First, crime was done in “presence” of cop, ie by victim who directly told cop of crime. Police chased but didn't catch. [NO hot pursuit since didn't run into home] Radioed information and had PC to arrest for theft and to stop car. Once stopped car, had PC to look in car w/o warrant due to the automobile exception b/c car was mobile and evidence and criminal could get away. W/in car, could open envelope b/c PC that contained stolen money. When found money, PC ended.

              1. No, photos found in second envelope are not admissible. Had PC to stop car and arrest subject. Under [Chimel], subject to a lawful arrest, no reason to think that envelope had dangerous or easily destroyable evidence. Under [Belton] cops may try to justify search of envelope, but distinguishable b/c unlike dope, unlikely to think more $ around. Under inventory search, ok to inventory the envelope, but not to open the envelope since purpose of inventory is to protect against claims of stolen stuff by police. If keep closed, no way accused to say stuff was taken. Also, doesn't matter that accused was not yet under arrest, if had PC to search for envelope ok.

              2. Definitely had PC as to crack. Had 3 informants- look to the totality of the circumstances. Great weight given to informant mother in some jurisdictions.

              3. Warrant was specific enough as regard to the place to be search. Requirement that warrants must specifically described the place to be search. House had no number on it. Based on reasonable inferences, police conclude in good faith what the number is. Gave specifics to street names, that on corner, and what color it was. In light of the circumstances, described house as particularly as they could.

              4. Gun found w/ drugs also admissible. Cops had PC and a warrant to search for drugs. Therefore, cops had authority to search house anywhere drugs could be found. Reasonable for drugs to be found in box. Therefore, once open box , gun becomes in plain view.


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